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Impact of prior anterior instability on shoulder arthroplasty outcomes: a systematic review

Open AccessPublished:September 14, 2022DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jseint.2022.08.012

      Background

      Anterior shoulder instability (ASI) is a frequently encountered pathology. Patients with a history of ASI have an increased rate of developing glenohumeral osteoarthritis and becoming candidates for shoulder arthroplasty. This systematic review aims to synthesize outcomes for patients undergoing shoulder arthroplasty with a history of ASI.

      Methods

      A comprehensive literature review was conducted according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) using PubMed, Embase, OVID Medline, Scopus, CINAHL, Web of Science, and Cochrane databases for studies evaluating the impact of prior ASI on total shoulder arthroplasty (TSA), reverse TSA, and/or hemiarthroplasty outcomes, with a minimum follow-up of 12 months. Studies were graded by level of evidence and data concerning patient demographics and outcomes were extracted.

      Results

      Sixteen articles met the inclusion criteria, including 596 patients (413 male, 181 female). The average age of the control and prior ASI groups were 57.5 and 57.0 years, respectively. Overall, 251 patients were treated operatively, 132 nonoperatively, and 213 were controls without a history of prior ASI. Shoulder arthroplasty techniques included TSA (436 shoulders), reverse TSA (130 shoulders), and hemiarthroplasty (14 shoulders). Prior anterior stabilization management included soft tissue repair, bony augmentation, and nonoperative treatment. Almost all studies reported no significant difference in subjective and functional arthroplasty outcomes between control and prior ASI groups, or between patients with prior ASI treated nonoperatively vs. surgically.

      Conclusion

      Shoulder arthroplasty in the setting of prior ASI results in improved subjective and functional outcome scores that are comparable to patients without a history of instability.

      Level of evidence

      Keywords

      Anterior shoulder instability (ASI) is a frequently encountered pathology in orthopedics
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      ASI can be managed with either nonoperative therapy or a variety of operative stabilization techniques.
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      and a recent study demonstrating a 7-fold decrease in recurrent instability following arthroscopic Bankart repair compared to nonoperative management,
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      the number of patients undergoing operative stabilization is likely to rise. Regardless of whether patients undergo nonoperative or operative management, patients with a history of ASI have an increased rate of developing glenohumeral osteoarthritis (GHOA).
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      The open modified Bankart procedure: outcome at follow-up of 10 to 15 years.
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      Glenohumeral arthrosis in anterior instability before and after surgical treatment: incidence and contributing factors.
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      Long-term results with Bankart procedure: a 26-year follow-up study of 50 cases.
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      Long-term results with the Bankart and Bristow-Latarjet procedures: recurrent shoulder instability and arthropathy.
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      • Craig E.V.
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      Development of arthrosis following dislocation of the shoulder: a case-control study.
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      Prevalence of and risk factors for dislocation arthropathy: radiological long-term outcome of arthroscopic Bankart repair in 100 shoulders at an average 13-year follow-up.
      First described by Neer et al in 1982 and subsequently defined as “dislocation arthropathy” by Samilson and Prieto a year later, arthritis following glenohumeral joint dislocation is a well described phenomenon.
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      • Adeleine P.
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      • Walch G.
      Glenohumeral arthrosis in anterior instability before and after surgical treatment: incidence and contributing factors.
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      • Papalia R.
      • Del Buono A.
      • Vasta S.
      • Maffulli N.
      • Denaro V.
      Glenohumeral osteoarthritis after arthroscopic Bankart repair for anterior instability.
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      • Augustini B.G.
      • Krantz L.
      • Fredin H.
      • et al.
      Neer Award 2008: arthropathy after primary anterior shoulder dislocation--223 shoulders prospectively followed up for twenty-five years.
      ,
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      • Watson K.C.
      • Stanton F.J.
      Recent experience in total shoulder replacement.
      ,
      • Samilson R.L.
      • Prieto V.
      Dislocation arthropathy of the shoulder.
      Marx et al reported the risk of developing arthrosis requiring total shoulder arthroplasty (TSA) following shoulder dislocation to be 19.3 times greater than those without a prior dislocation
      • Marx R.G.
      • McCarty E.C.
      • Montemurno T.D.
      • Altchek D.W.
      • Craig E.V.
      • Warren R.F.
      Development of arthrosis following dislocation of the shoulder: a case-control study.
      and radiographic evidence of GHOA has been reported to be as high as 69% in patients who underwent arthroscopic Bankart repair.
      • Plath J.E.
      • Aboalata M.
      • Seppel G.
      • Juretzko J.
      • Waldt S.
      • Vogt S.
      Prevalence of and risk factors for dislocation arthropathy: radiological long-term outcome of arthroscopic Bankart repair in 100 shoulders at an average 13-year follow-up.
      As these patients’ arthritis naturally progresses, they become candidates for shoulder arthroplasty which can be technically challenging due to distorted anatomy, existing hardware, young age, bone loss, and potential subscapularis deficiency.
      • Bigliani L.U.
      • Weinstein D.M.
      • Glasgow M.T.
      • Pollock R.G.
      • Flatow E.L.
      Glenohumeral arthroplasty for arthritis after instability surgery.
      ,
      • LaPrade C.M.
      • Bernhardson A.S.
      • Aman Z.S.
      • Moatshe G.
      • Chahla J.
      • Dornan G.J.
      • et al.
      Changes in the neurovascular anatomy of the shoulder after an open Latarjet procedure: defining a surgical safe zone.
      ,
      • Lehmann L.
      • Magosch P.
      • Mauermann E.
      • Lichtenberg S.
      • Habermeyer P.
      Total shoulder arthroplasty in dislocation arthropathy.
      Prior studies have documented variable shoulder arthroplasty outcomes in the setting of prior stabilization procedures, indicating the need for a current systematic review of the literature.
      • Lehmann L.
      • Magosch P.
      • Mauermann E.
      • Lichtenberg S.
      • Habermeyer P.
      Total shoulder arthroplasty in dislocation arthropathy.
      ,
      • Patel M.K.
      • Stone W.Z.
      • Struk A.M.
      • Farmer K.W.
      • Wright T.W.
      • King J.J.
      Shoulder arthroplasty after prior anterior stabilization procedures: do reverses have better outcomes?.
      ,
      • Sperling J.W.
      • Antuna S.A.
      • Sanchez-Sotelo J.
      • Schleck C.
      • Cofield R.H.
      Shoulder arthroplasty for arthritis after instability surgery.
      ,
      • Willemot L.B.
      • Elhassan B.T.
      • Sperling J.W.
      • Cofield R.H.
      • Sanchez-Sotelo J.
      Arthroplasty for glenohumeral arthritis in shoulders with a previous Bristow or Latarjet procedure.
      This systematic review aims to synthesize subjective and functional outcomes for patients undergoing shoulder arthroplasty with a history of anterior instability management (nonoperative or operative).
      We hypothesize that patients with a history of prior anterior instability who undergo shoulder arthroplasty will have inferior subjective and functional outcomes compared to those who have no prior history of anterior instability.

      Methods

      Information sources

      Databases used in this systematic review included PubMed Medline, Embase, OVID Medline, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (via OVID), Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (via OVID), CINAHL, and Web of Science from inception up to August 30, 2021.

      Literature search

      A search strategy was created using a combination of keywords and database-specific headings related to each concept, including TSA and prior anterior stabilization surgery; MeSH terms were utilized where appropriate/allowed by the database. Please refer to the supplementary data (Supplementary Table S1) for complete and reproducible search strategies. Non-English and nonhuman studies were excluded from the search through the database searches. Duplicates were removed using ProQuest RefWorks (Ex Libris, Jerusalem, Israel).

      Eligibility criteria

      For studies to meet the inclusion criteria, they had to include patients undergoing a primary shoulder arthroplasty that had undergone previous anterior stabilization management (nonoperative or operative). For this review, studies that treated patients with prior anterior stabilization management (nonoperative or operative) using an anatomic TSA, reverse TSA (rTSA), and/or hemiarthroplasty (HA) were included. Studies that meet the inclusion criteria had to state in their methods that the included patients had undergone prior stabilization and discuss the use of prior open and/or arthroscopic procedures or nonoperative management techniques. Postoperative follow-up was limited to a minimum of 12 months.
      Publication year limit was set within each database search from January 2000 to August 2021. Studies were only included if published in the English language. Studies that focused on revision shoulder arthroplasty, shoulder resurfacing, or rTSA as management of proximal humerus fractures were not included in the review. If there was no discussion of the impact of prior stabilization procedures on postoperative outcomes, studies were excluded. Studies which focused on shoulder arthroplasty in the setting of fracture fixation were not included. Cadaveric and animal studies were excluded as well. Additional studies excluded from this review included addresses, abstracts, conference posters, comments, editorials, case reports, and narrative review (ie, Level V evidence).

      Data collection process

      The data collection process consisted of multiple, tiered reviews. All reviews were conducted using Rayyan QCRI (Doha, Qatar). The first review consisted of two blinded reviewers screening title and abstract. Studies were included if the title or abstract indicated a focus on a patient population that had previously undergone anterior stabilization procedures. The articles marked for inclusion in the first round of screening were subjected to a full-text screening, again by two blinded, independent reviewers to ensure that they met the inclusion criteria listed above (SP and MM).
      Once each article had been screened by two reviewers, a third, independent reviewer resolved any conflicts that were present with regards to inclusion (AP). Once the full-text screening was complete, the included articles were collated in Rayyan, including the full-text PDFs of each study. The level of evidence of each article was graded by two, blinded reviewers (SP and MM). Any conflicts regarding the level of evidence were resolved by a third, independent reviewer (AP). Relevant data from each study were then extracted.

      Summary of measures and results

      Assignment of levels of evidence was done in a systematic approach. Level I was assigned to all randomized controlled trials and meta-analysis/systematic reviews. Cohort studies were considered level II. All case-control studies were considered level III. Level IV studies were case series.
      Data were then extracted from the articles included after the full-text review. For each study analyzed, the following data were extracted: number of patients, number of shoulders, sex of patients, mean age, study design, inclusion criteria, exclusion criteria, mean follow-up time, surgical technique (including arthroplasty type), prior surgical procedures, preoperative and postoperative functional scales, preoperative and postoperative range of motion (ROM) measurements, patient satisfaction, complications, revisions, and conclusions (Table I).
      Table ISummary of individual studies.
      Article noReferenceLoENo. patients (male:female)Implant typeMean age (y)Study designInclusion criteriaExclusion criteriaMean follow-upPrior surgeryConclusion
      1Anatomic total shoulder arthroplasty vs. reverse total shoulder arthroplasty for post-capsulorrhaphy arthropathy
      • Cuff D.J.
      • Santoni B.G.
      Anatomic total shoulder arthroplasty versus reverse total shoulder arthroplasty for post-capsulorrhaphy arthropathy.
      339 (38:1)19 TSA
      patients who underwent shoulder arthroplasty procedure with a history of prior anterior instability management (conservative or operative).
      v. 20 rTSA
      patients who underwent shoulder arthroplasty procedure with a history of prior anterior instability management (conservative or operative).
      67.5 ± 4.1 (TSA) 68.1 ± 3.4 (RTSA)Retrospective cohort studyEach of the patients had undergone at least one open stabilization procedure to treat a previously unstable shoulder that had a dislocation historyPreoperative or intraoperative identification of full thickness cuff tearTSA: 24-110 mo, rTSA: 24-72 moPrior open surgical stabilization on shoulder with history of dislocation and/or subluxationBoth TSA and rTSA had significant improvement in PROs and ROM pre to post. Prior open ant instability surgery may alter subscap and capsule, leading to instability after TSA. rTSA is safe and effective.
      2Arthroplasty for glenohumeral arthritis in shoulders with a previous Bristow or Latarjet procedure
      • Willemot L.B.
      • Elhassan B.T.
      • Sperling J.W.
      • Cofield R.H.
      • Sanchez-Sotelo J.
      Arthroplasty for glenohumeral arthritis in shoulders with a previous Bristow or Latarjet procedure.
      430 (17:13)14
      patients who underwent shoulder arthroplasty procedure with a history of prior anterior instability management (conservative or operative).
      TSA, 11
      patients who underwent shoulder arthroplasty procedure with a history of prior anterior instability management (conservative or operative).
      rTSA, 5
      patients who underwent shoulder arthroplasty procedure with a history of prior anterior instability management (conservative or operative).
      HA
      50.7 ± 12.8Prospective case seriesGHOA with prior coracoid transfer procedure; severe pain and loss of function 2/2 GHOAMinimum 2-year follow-up not reached4.9 ± 4.8 yPrior coracoid transfer procedureAthroplasty for patients with prior coracoid transfer provides increased ROM and pain relief. However, complications rates are high, particularly with HA and TSA.
      3Clinical characteristics and patient-reported outcomes of total shoulder arthroplasty after anterior stabilization: a retrospective matched control study
      • Ode G.E.
      • Ling D.
      • Finocchiaro A.
      • Lai E.Y.
      • Taylor S.A.
      • Dines J.
      • et al.
      Clinical characteristics and patient-reported outcomes of total shoulder arthroplasty after anterior stabilization: a retrospective matched control study.
      ,
      study performed a sub-group analysis by type of prior anterior instability management (conservative, open, arthroscopic).
      340 (30:10)20 TSA
      patients who underwent shoulder arthroplasty procedure with a history of prior anterior instability management (conservative or operative).
      vs. 20 TSA
      patients who underwent shoulder arthroplasty procedure without a history of prior anterior instability.
      Control
      TSA: 59.6 ± 8.7 Control: 58.4 ± 10.4Retrospective cohort studyAny patient who underwent shoulder arthroplasty performed by 1 of 8 senior fellowship-trained sports medicine and shoulder surgeons at designated institutionPatients with a history of inflammatory arthropathy and those who underwent reverse shoulder arthroplasty-Open stabilization for 11 (1 coracoid transfer, 10 open ant soft tissue plication, 6 of which involved Putti-Platt), arthroscopic stabilization in 9No difference between control and prior stability group at 2 y, but at 5 y, significantly worse SF-12, ASES, and shoulder activity score. No significant difference between open vs arthroscopic prior surgery. Prior surg group still had significant improvement in PROs at 2 y.
      4Comparison of shoulder replacement to treat osteoarthritis secondary to instability surgery and primary osteoarthritis: a retrospective controlled study of patient outcomes
      • Merolla G.
      • Cerciello S.
      • Marenco S.
      • Fabbri E.
      • Paladini P.
      • Porcellini G.
      Comparison of shoulder replacement to treat osteoarthritis secondary to instability surgery and primary osteoarthritis: a retrospective controlled study of patient outcomes.
      349 (30:19)19 TSA/HA
      patients who underwent shoulder arthroplasty procedure with a history of prior anterior instability management (conservative or operative).
      vs. 30 TSA
      patients who underwent shoulder arthroplasty procedure without a history of prior anterior instability.
      Control
      Study: 44.5 ± 12.4 Control: 48.2Prospective cohort studyPreoperative diagnosis of shoulder arthritis + prior instability repair/primary OA + 2-year follow-up-Study: 52.6 ± 18 mo Control: 41.6 ± 12 moPutti-platt (5), open capsulorrhaphy (8), arthroscopic capsulorrhaphy (5), Latarjet (1),Significant improvements among both arthroplasty and control groups from preoperative to postoperative (PRO and ROM). Results are largely comparable.
      5Early complication rates following total shoulder arthroplasty for instability arthropathy with prior coracoid transfer procedure
      • Bender M.J.
      • Morris B.J.
      • Sheth M.M.
      • Laughlin M.S.
      • Budeyri A.
      • Le R.K.
      • et al.
      Outcomes of total shoulder arthroplasty for instability arthropathy with a prior coracoid transfer procedure: a retrospective review and matched cohort.
      356 (52:4)14 TSA
      patients who underwent shoulder arthroplasty procedure with a history of prior anterior instability management (conservative or operative).
      vs. 42 TSA
      patients who underwent shoulder arthroplasty procedure without a history of prior anterior instability.
      Control
      Study: 56.7 ± 4.2 Control: 57.1 ± 5.0Retrospective matched cohort studyPrior coracoid transfer and subsequent TSARotator cuff tears, fixed dislocations, post shoulder instability, prior glenoid bone grafting from sources other than coracoid, HA, rTSAStudy:58 ± 35 mo

      Control: 42 ± 28 mo
      -No significant difference in complications rates between study and control group; All patients significantly increased functional and PROs.
      6Intermediate and long-term follow-up of total shoulder arthroplasty for the management of postcapsulorrhaphy arthropathy
      • Cadet E.R.
      • Kok P.
      • Greiwe R.M.
      • Chan A.
      • Ahmad C.S.
      • Levine W.N.
      • et al.
      Intermediate and long-term follow-up of total shoulder arthroplasty for the management of postcapsulorrhaphy arthropathy.
      344 (45 shoulders) (34:9)25 TSA
      patients who underwent shoulder arthroplasty procedure with a history of prior anterior instability management (conservative or operative).
      vs. 19 TSA
      patients who underwent shoulder arthroplasty procedure without a history of prior anterior instability.
      Control
      Study: 55 ± 13 Control: 58 ± 12Retrospective matched cohort studyPatients with post-CA treated with TSA-Study: (24-136) mo Control: (24-72) moPostcapsulorrhaphyTSA after CA helps with pain and function but have worse outcomes compared to TSA for OA.
      7Outcomes of primary reverse shoulder arthroplasty for dislocation arthropathy
      • Chalmers BWEH M.T.
      • Sperling J.W.
      • Cofield R.H.
      • Sanchez-Sotello J.
      Outcomes of primary reverse shoulder arthroplasty for dislocation arthropathy.
      424 (14:10)rTSA
      patients who underwent shoulder arthroplasty procedure with a history of prior anterior instability management (conservative or operative).
      70
      only median value provided.
      Retrospective case seriesHistory of prior glenohumeral dislocationProximal humerus fracture, dislocation, less than 2-year follow-up40 mo (range 24-72)-rTSA produces significant improvements to ER and FE. However, results are lessened by a complete subscapularis deficiency.
      8Reverse arthroplasty for osteoarthritis and rotator cuff deficiency after previous surgery for recurrent anterior shoulder instability
      • Raiss P.
      • Zeifang F.
      • Pons-Villanueva J.
      • Smithers C.J.
      • Loew M.
      • Walch G.
      Reverse arthroplasty for osteoarthritis and rotator cuff deficiency after previous surgery for recurrent anterior shoulder instability.
      413 (8:5)rTSA
      patients who underwent shoulder arthroplasty procedure with a history of prior anterior instability management (conservative or operative).
      70 (range 48-82)Retrospective case series1. OA and RC deficiency following a prior surgery for anterior stability. 2. treatment with same rTSA. 3. minimum 2-year follow-up-3.5 y (range 2-8)Patients with only 1 prior surgery: 5 Trillat procedure: 2 Latarjet :3 Bankart and capsular shift: 1 Eden-Hybinette :2 Operations Latajet after failed Bankart: 1 Latarjet after failed Trillat: 1, Patients had recurrent ant. sublux ation after Trillat: 3rTSA had significant improvements to FF and IR but not ER following prior surgeries to treat ant. instability. Furthermore, rTSA had significant improvements in strength, activity, pain, and mobility.
      9Reverse shoulder arthroplasty for instability arthropathy
      • Clavert P.
      • Kling A.
      • Sirveaux F.
      • Favard L.
      • Mole D.
      • Walch G.
      • et al.
      Reverse shoulder arthroplasty for instability arthropathy.
      419 (9:10)rTSA
      patients who underwent shoulder arthroplasty procedure with a history of prior anterior instability management (conservative or operative).
      69.9
      only median value provided.
      Retrospective case series1. Previous history of shoulder instability with prior surgery 2. Previous multiple closed reductionChronic locked dislocations or dislocations79.2 mo
      only median value provided.
      80% had prior surgery 7 had Latarjet or Bristow rest had capsular surgery remaining 20% had closed reduction in historyrTSA improved objective and subjective scores in patients with prior instability.
      10Reverse shoulder arthroplasty in the treatment of glenohumeral instability
      • Hasler A.
      • Fornaciari P.
      • Jungwirth-Weinberger A.
      • Jentzsch T.
      • Wieser K.
      • Gerber C.
      Reverse shoulder arthroplasty in the treatment of glenohumeral instability.
      333 (14:19)11 rTSA
      patients who underwent shoulder arthroplasty procedure with a history of prior anterior instability management (conservative or operative).
      vs. 22 rTSA
      patients who underwent shoulder arthroplasty procedure without a history of prior anterior instability.
      Control
      Study: 70
      only median value provided.
      Retrospective case seriesRecurrent instability after failed operation or associated with major bone loss –another stabilization procedure was not considered an option, traumatic dislocation-Study: (22-171) mo

      Control: 23-172 mo
      Study: 3 shoulder had prior surgeries (2 Bankart, 2 Latarjets)

      Control: 7 had RCR or débridement before index surgical procedure
      Pain score, SSV after rTSA improves outcomes for case group (recurrent instability) and has similar outcomes when compared to rTSA for cuff deficiency.
      11Shoulder arthroplasty after prior anterior stabilization procedures: do reverses have better outcomes?
      • Patel M.K.
      • Stone W.Z.
      • Struk A.M.
      • Farmer K.W.
      • Wright T.W.
      • King J.J.
      Shoulder arthroplasty after prior anterior stabilization procedures: do reverses have better outcomes?.
      345 (21:24)15
      patients who underwent shoulder arthroplasty procedure with a history of prior anterior instability management (conservative or operative).
      TSA vs. 10
      patients who underwent shoulder arthroplasty procedure with a history of prior anterior instability management (conservative or operative).
      rTSA vs. 30
      patients who underwent shoulder arthroplasty procedure without a history of prior anterior instability.
      Control
      TSA: 54.9 rTSA: 65.4 Control: 64.5Prospective cohort studyPrimary TSA or rTSA, history of anterior stabilization surgery, minimum 2-year follow-upPrior shoulder infection, prior shoulder athroplasty, and/or less than 2 y follow-upTSA: 48 mo, rTSA: 39.6 mo, Control 33.6 moTSA: Bristow (4), anterior labral repair (7), open anterior capsular recon (4) rTSA: Bristow (3), Glenoid osteotomy (1), open anterior labral repairs (3), arthroscopic labral repair (2), thermal capsulorrhaphy + RCR (1)rTSA had better PROs than TSA group; all groups had significant improvements in ROM and PROs postop - only nonsignifiant improvement was IR after rTSA. Relative to control rTSA, those with prior surgery + rTSA had similar preoperative ROM/PROs and there were no significant postoperative differences.
      12Shoulder arthroplasty for advanced glenohumeral arthritis after anterior instability repair
      • Green A.
      • Norris T.R.
      Shoulder arthroplasty for advanced glenohumeral arthritis after anterior instability repair.
      419 (11:8)19
      patients who underwent shoulder arthroplasty procedure with a history of prior anterior instability management (conservative or operative).
      TSA or HA
      45 (range, 32-69)Retrospective case seriesSurgical procedure to treat anterior glenohumeral instability-62 mo (range, 24-167)4 Bristow, 4 Putti-Platt, 4 Magnuson-Stack, 2 Bankart, 5 other types of anterior capsulorrhaphyTSA produced increased FF, ER, IR; no significant improvement; FF and ER had better strength while IR had some decreases (most of which were a result of subscapularis lengthening).
      13Shoulder arthroplasty in patients with a prior anterior shoulder dislocation
      • Matsoukis J.
      • Tabib W.
      • Guiffault P.
      • Mandelbaum A.
      • Walch G.
      • Némoz C.
      Shoulder arthroplasty in patients with a prior anterior shoulder dislocation. Results of a multicenter study.
      355 (31:24)27
      patients who underwent shoulder arthroplasty procedure with a history of prior anterior instability management (conservative or operative).
      TSA vs. 28 TSA
      patients who underwent shoulder arthroplasty procedure without a history of prior anterior instability.
      Control
      Study: 31.6 Control: 43.1Prospective cohort studyStudy: Patients treated with TSA with history of prior anterior dislo-cation that had been reduced; Control: GHOA treated with TSAFixed anterior dislocation45 mo (range, 24-87)Coracoid transfer (17), soft tissue reconstruction (9), Putti platt + coracoid (1)No significant differences between prior ant instability procedure and control group. All patients had significant improvement pre to postop.
      14Total shoulder arthroplasty in dislocation arthropathy
      • Lehmann L.
      • Magosch P.
      • Mauermann E.
      • Lichtenberg S.
      • Habermeyer P.
      Total shoulder arthroplasty in dislocation arthropathy.
      445 (30:15)45
      patients who underwent shoulder arthroplasty procedure with a history of prior anterior instability management (conservative or operative).
      TSA or HA
      55.8 (range 32-76)Retrospective case seriesOA of glenohumeral joint; history of shoulder instability and underwent prosthetic replacement-44 mo (range, 12-101)21 prior stabilizations (3 arthroscopic stabilization, 9 Eden-Hybbinette, 9 open Bankart) each patient had only 1 procedureTSA produces significant increased FE, ER, IR, and abduction. Increased abduction strength but not significant. Significant improvements in levels of pain, active ROM, and activities of daily living.
      15Shoulder arthroplasty for arthritis after instability surgery
      • Sperling J.W.
      • Antuna S.A.
      • Sanchez-Sotelo J.
      • Schleck C.
      • Cofield R.H.
      Shoulder arthroplasty for arthritis after instability surgery.
      431 (25:6)31
      patients who underwent shoulder arthroplasty procedure with a history of prior anterior instability management (conservative or operative).
      TSA or HA
      46 (range, 22-70)Prospective case seriesGHOA treated with total shoulder with prior surgery-7 y (range, 0.7 to 21)Open anterior capsule repair (13), Bristow (8), putti-platt (4), magnuson-stack (2), arthroscopic anterior repair (2), bone block (1)Significant improvement in ER and abduction preoperative to postoperative. arthroplasty is tenable in patients with previous anterior instability surgery but is accompanied by a higher risk of complications.
      16Outcomes of total shoulder arthroplatsy for instability arthropathy with a prior coracoid transfer procedure: a retrospective review and matched cohort
      • Bender M.J.
      • Morris B.J.
      • Laughlin M.S.
      • Sheth M.M.
      • Budeyri A.
      • Le R.K.
      • et al.
      Early complication rates following total shoulder arthroplasty for instability arthropathy with a prior coracoid transfer procedure.
      344 (40:4)11
      patients who underwent shoulder arthroplasty procedure with a history of prior anterior instability management (conservative or operative).
      TSA vs. 31 TSA
      patients who underwent shoulder arthroplasty procedure with a history of prior anterior instability management (conservative or operative).
      Control
      Study: 58 Control: 47Prospective matched cohortPrior coracoid transfer, anatomic TSA, 2-year follow-upFixed dislocations, posterior shoulder instability, prior glenoid bone grafting not from coracoid, HA/rTSA, coracoid transfer + TSA at once, lack of follow-upStudy: 58 Control: 47Bristow (8), Latarjet (3)Significant difference in ASES and pain for prior surgery patients (higher in prior surgery). Significant improvement for all preoperative to postoperative outcomes in both groups.
      TSA, total shoulder arthroplasty; rTSA, reverse total shoulder arthroplasty; HA, hemiarthroplasty; GHOA, glenohumeral osteoarthritis; PRO, patient-reported outcome; ASES, American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons shoulder score; SF-12, 12-item short form survey; OA, osteoarthritis; ROM, range of motion; CA, capsulorrhaphy arthropathy; FF, forward flexion; IR, internal rotation; ER, external rotation; RC, rotator cuff; SSV, subjective shoulder value score; RCR, rotator cuff repair; FE, forward elevation.
      patients who underwent shoulder arthroplasty procedure with a history of prior anterior instability management (conservative or operative).
      patients who underwent shoulder arthroplasty procedure without a history of prior anterior instability.
      study performed a sub-group analysis by type of prior anterior instability management (conservative, open, arthroscopic).
      § only median value provided.

      Risk of bias

      The search procedure was standardized across all databases using homogenous search strings to ensure minimal bias. Each level of screening was performed by two reviewers in a blinded fashion to avoid interobserver bias. Conflict resolution was an inherently unblinded step, which does introduce the possibility of interobserver bias at this stage. Similarly, grading of levels of evidence was done in a blinded fashion to minimize bias. Levels I through IV were only included in the review, to reduce bias from studies of lesser quality. The greatest risk of bias comes from the limited number of studies on the subject of the impact of prior anterior stabilization procedures on shoulder arthroplasty outcomes.

      Results

      Study selection

      From the initial database search, 304 articles were identified. After duplicates were removed, 221 articles remained and were subjected to screening. 146 articles were removed based on title and abstract screening using the criteria above. The remaining 75 articles underwent a full-text screening. A total of 15 articles were included at the end of full-text screening; an additional article was found through grey literature searches and was included based on meeting the above criteria (Fig. 1). Of the included studies, 9 were considered level of evidence III,
      • Bender M.J.
      • Morris B.J.
      • Laughlin M.S.
      • Sheth M.M.
      • Budeyri A.
      • Le R.K.
      • et al.
      Early complication rates following total shoulder arthroplasty for instability arthropathy with a prior coracoid transfer procedure.
      ,
      • Bender M.J.
      • Morris B.J.
      • Sheth M.M.
      • Laughlin M.S.
      • Budeyri A.
      • Le R.K.
      • et al.
      Outcomes of total shoulder arthroplasty for instability arthropathy with a prior coracoid transfer procedure: a retrospective review and matched cohort.
      ,
      • Cadet E.R.
      • Kok P.
      • Greiwe R.M.
      • Chan A.
      • Ahmad C.S.
      • Levine W.N.
      • et al.
      Intermediate and long-term follow-up of total shoulder arthroplasty for the management of postcapsulorrhaphy arthropathy.
      ,
      • Cuff D.J.
      • Santoni B.G.
      Anatomic total shoulder arthroplasty versus reverse total shoulder arthroplasty for post-capsulorrhaphy arthropathy.
      ,
      • Hasler A.
      • Fornaciari P.
      • Jungwirth-Weinberger A.
      • Jentzsch T.
      • Wieser K.
      • Gerber C.
      Reverse shoulder arthroplasty in the treatment of glenohumeral instability.
      ,
      • Matsoukis J.
      • Tabib W.
      • Guiffault P.
      • Mandelbaum A.
      • Walch G.
      • Némoz C.
      Shoulder arthroplasty in patients with a prior anterior shoulder dislocation. Results of a multicenter study.
      ,
      • Merolla G.
      • Cerciello S.
      • Marenco S.
      • Fabbri E.
      • Paladini P.
      • Porcellini G.
      Comparison of shoulder replacement to treat osteoarthritis secondary to instability surgery and primary osteoarthritis: a retrospective controlled study of patient outcomes.
      ,
      • Ode G.E.
      • Ling D.
      • Finocchiaro A.
      • Lai E.Y.
      • Taylor S.A.
      • Dines J.
      • et al.
      Clinical characteristics and patient-reported outcomes of total shoulder arthroplasty after anterior stabilization: a retrospective matched control study.
      ,
      • Patel M.K.
      • Stone W.Z.
      • Struk A.M.
      • Farmer K.W.
      • Wright T.W.
      • King J.J.
      Shoulder arthroplasty after prior anterior stabilization procedures: do reverses have better outcomes?.
      with the remaining 7 being level of evidence IV.
      • Chalmers BWEH M.T.
      • Sperling J.W.
      • Cofield R.H.
      • Sanchez-Sotello J.
      Outcomes of primary reverse shoulder arthroplasty for dislocation arthropathy.
      ,
      • Clavert P.
      • Kling A.
      • Sirveaux F.
      • Favard L.
      • Mole D.
      • Walch G.
      • et al.
      Reverse shoulder arthroplasty for instability arthropathy.
      ,
      • Green A.
      • Norris T.R.
      Shoulder arthroplasty for advanced glenohumeral arthritis after anterior instability repair.
      ,
      • Lehmann L.
      • Magosch P.
      • Mauermann E.
      • Lichtenberg S.
      • Habermeyer P.
      Total shoulder arthroplasty in dislocation arthropathy.
      ,
      • Raiss P.
      • Zeifang F.
      • Pons-Villanueva J.
      • Smithers C.J.
      • Loew M.
      • Walch G.
      Reverse arthroplasty for osteoarthritis and rotator cuff deficiency after previous surgery for recurrent anterior shoulder instability.
      ,
      • Sperling J.W.
      • Antuna S.A.
      • Sanchez-Sotelo J.
      • Schleck C.
      • Cofield R.H.
      Shoulder arthroplasty for arthritis after instability surgery.
      ,
      • Willemot L.B.
      • Elhassan B.T.
      • Sperling J.W.
      • Cofield R.H.
      • Sanchez-Sotelo J.
      Arthroplasty for glenohumeral arthritis in shoulders with a previous Bristow or Latarjet procedure.
      Figure thumbnail gr1
      Figure 1Flow diagram displaying the systematic review of search strategy.

      Demographic and surgical factors

      Overall, there were a total of 596 patients (597 shoulders) included in the studies. Of these 596 patients, 213 patients (214 shoulders) served as controls that did not have a history of prior anterior instability. Of the remaining 383 patients who underwent management for anterior instability, 132 patients were treated nonoperatively. There were 413 male patients (149 controls) and 181 female patients (65 controls) included. The mean age of the patients who had a history of prior anterior instability was 57.0 years old (unable to give standard deviation or range because lack of consistency in variance reportings), while the mean age of the controls was 57.5 years old. The minimum follow-up for all included studies was 24 months, with an average follow-up of 50.7 months after arthroplasty.
      Of the included studies, 5 studies utilized an anatomic implant,
      • Bender M.J.
      • Morris B.J.
      • Laughlin M.S.
      • Sheth M.M.
      • Budeyri A.
      • Le R.K.
      • et al.
      Early complication rates following total shoulder arthroplasty for instability arthropathy with a prior coracoid transfer procedure.
      ,
      • Bender M.J.
      • Morris B.J.
      • Sheth M.M.
      • Laughlin M.S.
      • Budeyri A.
      • Le R.K.
      • et al.
      Outcomes of total shoulder arthroplasty for instability arthropathy with a prior coracoid transfer procedure: a retrospective review and matched cohort.
      ,
      • Cadet E.R.
      • Kok P.
      • Greiwe R.M.
      • Chan A.
      • Ahmad C.S.
      • Levine W.N.
      • et al.
      Intermediate and long-term follow-up of total shoulder arthroplasty for the management of postcapsulorrhaphy arthropathy.
      ,
      • Matsoukis J.
      • Tabib W.
      • Guiffault P.
      • Mandelbaum A.
      • Walch G.
      • Némoz C.
      Shoulder arthroplasty in patients with a prior anterior shoulder dislocation. Results of a multicenter study.
      ,
      • Ode G.E.
      • Ling D.
      • Finocchiaro A.
      • Lai E.Y.
      • Taylor S.A.
      • Dines J.
      • et al.
      Clinical characteristics and patient-reported outcomes of total shoulder arthroplasty after anterior stabilization: a retrospective matched control study.
      4 studies utilized an rTSA implant,
      • Chalmers BWEH M.T.
      • Sperling J.W.
      • Cofield R.H.
      • Sanchez-Sotello J.
      Outcomes of primary reverse shoulder arthroplasty for dislocation arthropathy.
      ,
      • Clavert P.
      • Kling A.
      • Sirveaux F.
      • Favard L.
      • Mole D.
      • Walch G.
      • et al.
      Reverse shoulder arthroplasty for instability arthropathy.
      ,
      • Hasler A.
      • Fornaciari P.
      • Jungwirth-Weinberger A.
      • Jentzsch T.
      • Wieser K.
      • Gerber C.
      Reverse shoulder arthroplasty in the treatment of glenohumeral instability.
      ,
      • Raiss P.
      • Zeifang F.
      • Pons-Villanueva J.
      • Smithers C.J.
      • Loew M.
      • Walch G.
      Reverse arthroplasty for osteoarthritis and rotator cuff deficiency after previous surgery for recurrent anterior shoulder instability.
      4 studies utilized either a HA or an anatomic TSA implant,
      • Green A.
      • Norris T.R.
      Shoulder arthroplasty for advanced glenohumeral arthritis after anterior instability repair.
      ,
      • Lehmann L.
      • Magosch P.
      • Mauermann E.
      • Lichtenberg S.
      • Habermeyer P.
      Total shoulder arthroplasty in dislocation arthropathy.
      ,
      • Merolla G.
      • Cerciello S.
      • Marenco S.
      • Fabbri E.
      • Paladini P.
      • Porcellini G.
      Comparison of shoulder replacement to treat osteoarthritis secondary to instability surgery and primary osteoarthritis: a retrospective controlled study of patient outcomes.
      ,
      • Sperling J.W.
      • Antuna S.A.
      • Sanchez-Sotelo J.
      • Schleck C.
      • Cofield R.H.
      Shoulder arthroplasty for arthritis after instability surgery.
      2 utilized either a rTSA or an anatomic TSA implant,
      • Cuff D.J.
      • Santoni B.G.
      Anatomic total shoulder arthroplasty versus reverse total shoulder arthroplasty for post-capsulorrhaphy arthropathy.
      ,
      • Patel M.K.
      • Stone W.Z.
      • Struk A.M.
      • Farmer K.W.
      • Wright T.W.
      • King J.J.
      Shoulder arthroplasty after prior anterior stabilization procedures: do reverses have better outcomes?.
      and 1 study utilized all 3 implant types (TSA, rTSA, and HA).
      • Willemot L.B.
      • Elhassan B.T.
      • Sperling J.W.
      • Cofield R.H.
      • Sanchez-Sotelo J.
      Arthroplasty for glenohumeral arthritis in shoulders with a previous Bristow or Latarjet procedure.
      Twelve studies specifically commented on their surgical approach, with 9 using a deltopectoral approach.
      • Bender M.J.
      • Morris B.J.
      • Laughlin M.S.
      • Sheth M.M.
      • Budeyri A.
      • Le R.K.
      • et al.
      Early complication rates following total shoulder arthroplasty for instability arthropathy with a prior coracoid transfer procedure.
      ,
      • Bender M.J.
      • Morris B.J.
      • Sheth M.M.
      • Laughlin M.S.
      • Budeyri A.
      • Le R.K.
      • et al.
      Outcomes of total shoulder arthroplasty for instability arthropathy with a prior coracoid transfer procedure: a retrospective review and matched cohort.
      ,
      • Cuff D.J.
      • Santoni B.G.
      Anatomic total shoulder arthroplasty versus reverse total shoulder arthroplasty for post-capsulorrhaphy arthropathy.
      ,
      • Green A.
      • Norris T.R.
      Shoulder arthroplasty for advanced glenohumeral arthritis after anterior instability repair.
      ,
      • Lehmann L.
      • Magosch P.
      • Mauermann E.
      • Lichtenberg S.
      • Habermeyer P.
      Total shoulder arthroplasty in dislocation arthropathy.
      ,
      • Merolla G.
      • Cerciello S.
      • Marenco S.
      • Fabbri E.
      • Paladini P.
      • Porcellini G.
      Comparison of shoulder replacement to treat osteoarthritis secondary to instability surgery and primary osteoarthritis: a retrospective controlled study of patient outcomes.
      ,
      • Patel M.K.
      • Stone W.Z.
      • Struk A.M.
      • Farmer K.W.
      • Wright T.W.
      • King J.J.
      Shoulder arthroplasty after prior anterior stabilization procedures: do reverses have better outcomes?.
      ,
      • Raiss P.
      • Zeifang F.
      • Pons-Villanueva J.
      • Smithers C.J.
      • Loew M.
      • Walch G.
      Reverse arthroplasty for osteoarthritis and rotator cuff deficiency after previous surgery for recurrent anterior shoulder instability.
      ,
      • Willemot L.B.
      • Elhassan B.T.
      • Sperling J.W.
      • Cofield R.H.
      • Sanchez-Sotelo J.
      Arthroplasty for glenohumeral arthritis in shoulders with a previous Bristow or Latarjet procedure.
      The other 3 studies utilized a combination of anterosuperior or anteromedial approaches, with the majority of cases still being done through a deltopectoral approach.
      • Cadet E.R.
      • Kok P.
      • Greiwe R.M.
      • Chan A.
      • Ahmad C.S.
      • Levine W.N.
      • et al.
      Intermediate and long-term follow-up of total shoulder arthroplasty for the management of postcapsulorrhaphy arthropathy.
      ,
      • Clavert P.
      • Kling A.
      • Sirveaux F.
      • Favard L.
      • Mole D.
      • Walch G.
      • et al.
      Reverse shoulder arthroplasty for instability arthropathy.
      ,
      • Sperling J.W.
      • Antuna S.A.
      • Sanchez-Sotelo J.
      • Schleck C.
      • Cofield R.H.
      Shoulder arthroplasty for arthritis after instability surgery.
      Ten studies discussed handling of the subscapularis, which was either repaired or tenotomized in all studies, except in cases of tendon ruptures/tears.
      • Bender M.J.
      • Morris B.J.
      • Laughlin M.S.
      • Sheth M.M.
      • Budeyri A.
      • Le R.K.
      • et al.
      Early complication rates following total shoulder arthroplasty for instability arthropathy with a prior coracoid transfer procedure.
      ,
      • Bender M.J.
      • Morris B.J.
      • Sheth M.M.
      • Laughlin M.S.
      • Budeyri A.
      • Le R.K.
      • et al.
      Outcomes of total shoulder arthroplasty for instability arthropathy with a prior coracoid transfer procedure: a retrospective review and matched cohort.
      ,
      • Cadet E.R.
      • Kok P.
      • Greiwe R.M.
      • Chan A.
      • Ahmad C.S.
      • Levine W.N.
      • et al.
      Intermediate and long-term follow-up of total shoulder arthroplasty for the management of postcapsulorrhaphy arthropathy.
      ,
      • Cuff D.J.
      • Santoni B.G.
      Anatomic total shoulder arthroplasty versus reverse total shoulder arthroplasty for post-capsulorrhaphy arthropathy.
      ,
      • Green A.
      • Norris T.R.
      Shoulder arthroplasty for advanced glenohumeral arthritis after anterior instability repair.
      ,
      • Hasler A.
      • Fornaciari P.
      • Jungwirth-Weinberger A.
      • Jentzsch T.
      • Wieser K.
      • Gerber C.
      Reverse shoulder arthroplasty in the treatment of glenohumeral instability.
      ,
      • Lehmann L.
      • Magosch P.
      • Mauermann E.
      • Lichtenberg S.
      • Habermeyer P.
      Total shoulder arthroplasty in dislocation arthropathy.
      ,
      • Patel M.K.
      • Stone W.Z.
      • Struk A.M.
      • Farmer K.W.
      • Wright T.W.
      • King J.J.
      Shoulder arthroplasty after prior anterior stabilization procedures: do reverses have better outcomes?.
      ,
      • Raiss P.
      • Zeifang F.
      • Pons-Villanueva J.
      • Smithers C.J.
      • Loew M.
      • Walch G.
      Reverse arthroplasty for osteoarthritis and rotator cuff deficiency after previous surgery for recurrent anterior shoulder instability.
      ,
      • Willemot L.B.
      • Elhassan B.T.
      • Sperling J.W.
      • Cofield R.H.
      • Sanchez-Sotelo J.
      Arthroplasty for glenohumeral arthritis in shoulders with a previous Bristow or Latarjet procedure.
      Number of subscapularis repairs vs. tenotomies were not specified in any of the included studies. Indications for anatomic TSA included capsulorrhaphy arthropathy and degenerative GHOA, while indications for rTSA included an irreparable, massive tear of the rotator cuff, rupture of the subscapularis tendon, or an isolated fatty infiltration of the subscapularis muscle, following failed prior instability management (operative or nonoperative).
      • Ackland D.C.
      • Robinson D.L.
      • Wilkosz A.
      • Wu W.
      • Richardson M.
      • Lee P.
      • et al.
      The influence of rotator cuff tears on muscle and joint-contact loading after reverse total shoulder arthroplasty.
      • Bender M.J.
      • Morris B.J.
      • Laughlin M.S.
      • Sheth M.M.
      • Budeyri A.
      • Le R.K.
      • et al.
      Early complication rates following total shoulder arthroplasty for instability arthropathy with a prior coracoid transfer procedure.
      ,
      • Bender M.J.
      • Morris B.J.
      • Sheth M.M.
      • Laughlin M.S.
      • Budeyri A.
      • Le R.K.
      • et al.
      Outcomes of total shoulder arthroplasty for instability arthropathy with a prior coracoid transfer procedure: a retrospective review and matched cohort.
      ,
      • Cadet E.R.
      • Kok P.
      • Greiwe R.M.
      • Chan A.
      • Ahmad C.S.
      • Levine W.N.
      • et al.
      Intermediate and long-term follow-up of total shoulder arthroplasty for the management of postcapsulorrhaphy arthropathy.
      ,
      • Chalmers BWEH M.T.
      • Sperling J.W.
      • Cofield R.H.
      • Sanchez-Sotello J.
      Outcomes of primary reverse shoulder arthroplasty for dislocation arthropathy.
      ,
      • Clavert P.
      • Kling A.
      • Sirveaux F.
      • Favard L.
      • Mole D.
      • Walch G.
      • et al.
      Reverse shoulder arthroplasty for instability arthropathy.
      ,
      • Cuff D.J.
      • Santoni B.G.
      Anatomic total shoulder arthroplasty versus reverse total shoulder arthroplasty for post-capsulorrhaphy arthropathy.
      ,
      • Green A.
      • Norris T.R.
      Shoulder arthroplasty for advanced glenohumeral arthritis after anterior instability repair.
      ,
      • Hasler A.
      • Fornaciari P.
      • Jungwirth-Weinberger A.
      • Jentzsch T.
      • Wieser K.
      • Gerber C.
      Reverse shoulder arthroplasty in the treatment of glenohumeral instability.
      ,
      • Lehmann L.
      • Magosch P.
      • Mauermann E.
      • Lichtenberg S.
      • Habermeyer P.
      Total shoulder arthroplasty in dislocation arthropathy.
      ,
      • Matsoukis J.
      • Tabib W.
      • Guiffault P.
      • Mandelbaum A.
      • Walch G.
      • Némoz C.
      Shoulder arthroplasty in patients with a prior anterior shoulder dislocation. Results of a multicenter study.
      ,
      • Merolla G.
      • Cerciello S.
      • Marenco S.
      • Fabbri E.
      • Paladini P.
      • Porcellini G.
      Comparison of shoulder replacement to treat osteoarthritis secondary to instability surgery and primary osteoarthritis: a retrospective controlled study of patient outcomes.
      ,
      • Ode G.E.
      • Ling D.
      • Finocchiaro A.
      • Lai E.Y.
      • Taylor S.A.
      • Dines J.
      • et al.
      Clinical characteristics and patient-reported outcomes of total shoulder arthroplasty after anterior stabilization: a retrospective matched control study.
      ,
      • Patel M.K.
      • Stone W.Z.
      • Struk A.M.
      • Farmer K.W.
      • Wright T.W.
      • King J.J.
      Shoulder arthroplasty after prior anterior stabilization procedures: do reverses have better outcomes?.
      ,
      • Raiss P.
      • Zeifang F.
      • Pons-Villanueva J.
      • Smithers C.J.
      • Loew M.
      • Walch G.
      Reverse arthroplasty for osteoarthritis and rotator cuff deficiency after previous surgery for recurrent anterior shoulder instability.
      ,
      • Sperling J.W.
      • Antuna S.A.
      • Sanchez-Sotelo J.
      • Schleck C.
      • Cofield R.H.
      Shoulder arthroplasty for arthritis after instability surgery.
      ,
      • Willemot L.B.
      • Elhassan B.T.
      • Sperling J.W.
      • Cofield R.H.
      • Sanchez-Sotelo J.
      Arthroplasty for glenohumeral arthritis in shoulders with a previous Bristow or Latarjet procedure.
      There were a wide variety of prior surgeries that were included in these studies—coracoid transfers (Latarjet, Bristow, Trillat, Eden-Hybinette), and soft tissue procedures (Putti-Platt, capsulorrhaphy, Bankart, anterior labral repair, anterior capsular reconstruction, Magnuson-Stack).
      • Bender M.J.
      • Morris B.J.
      • Laughlin M.S.
      • Sheth M.M.
      • Budeyri A.
      • Le R.K.
      • et al.
      Early complication rates following total shoulder arthroplasty for instability arthropathy with a prior coracoid transfer procedure.
      ,
      • Bender M.J.
      • Morris B.J.
      • Sheth M.M.
      • Laughlin M.S.
      • Budeyri A.
      • Le R.K.
      • et al.
      Outcomes of total shoulder arthroplasty for instability arthropathy with a prior coracoid transfer procedure: a retrospective review and matched cohort.
      ,
      • Cadet E.R.
      • Kok P.
      • Greiwe R.M.
      • Chan A.
      • Ahmad C.S.
      • Levine W.N.
      • et al.
      Intermediate and long-term follow-up of total shoulder arthroplasty for the management of postcapsulorrhaphy arthropathy.
      ,
      • Clavert P.
      • Kling A.
      • Sirveaux F.
      • Favard L.
      • Mole D.
      • Walch G.
      • et al.
      Reverse shoulder arthroplasty for instability arthropathy.
      ,
      • Green A.
      • Norris T.R.
      Shoulder arthroplasty for advanced glenohumeral arthritis after anterior instability repair.
      ,
      • Hasler A.
      • Fornaciari P.
      • Jungwirth-Weinberger A.
      • Jentzsch T.
      • Wieser K.
      • Gerber C.
      Reverse shoulder arthroplasty in the treatment of glenohumeral instability.
      ,
      • Lehmann L.
      • Magosch P.
      • Mauermann E.
      • Lichtenberg S.
      • Habermeyer P.
      Total shoulder arthroplasty in dislocation arthropathy.
      ,
      • Matsoukis J.
      • Tabib W.
      • Guiffault P.
      • Mandelbaum A.
      • Walch G.
      • Némoz C.
      Shoulder arthroplasty in patients with a prior anterior shoulder dislocation. Results of a multicenter study.
      ,
      • Merolla G.
      • Cerciello S.
      • Marenco S.
      • Fabbri E.
      • Paladini P.
      • Porcellini G.
      Comparison of shoulder replacement to treat osteoarthritis secondary to instability surgery and primary osteoarthritis: a retrospective controlled study of patient outcomes.
      ,
      • Ode G.E.
      • Ling D.
      • Finocchiaro A.
      • Lai E.Y.
      • Taylor S.A.
      • Dines J.
      • et al.
      Clinical characteristics and patient-reported outcomes of total shoulder arthroplasty after anterior stabilization: a retrospective matched control study.
      ,
      • Patel M.K.
      • Stone W.Z.
      • Struk A.M.
      • Farmer K.W.
      • Wright T.W.
      • King J.J.
      Shoulder arthroplasty after prior anterior stabilization procedures: do reverses have better outcomes?.
      ,
      • Raiss P.
      • Zeifang F.
      • Pons-Villanueva J.
      • Smithers C.J.
      • Loew M.
      • Walch G.
      Reverse arthroplasty for osteoarthritis and rotator cuff deficiency after previous surgery for recurrent anterior shoulder instability.
      ,
      • Sperling J.W.
      • Antuna S.A.
      • Sanchez-Sotelo J.
      • Schleck C.
      • Cofield R.H.
      Shoulder arthroplasty for arthritis after instability surgery.
      ,
      • Willemot L.B.
      • Elhassan B.T.
      • Sperling J.W.
      • Cofield R.H.
      • Sanchez-Sotelo J.
      Arthroplasty for glenohumeral arthritis in shoulders with a previous Bristow or Latarjet procedure.
      Only 2 studies did not specify the type of prior surgery.
      • Chalmers BWEH M.T.
      • Sperling J.W.
      • Cofield R.H.
      • Sanchez-Sotello J.
      Outcomes of primary reverse shoulder arthroplasty for dislocation arthropathy.
      ,
      • Cuff D.J.
      • Santoni B.G.
      Anatomic total shoulder arthroplasty versus reverse total shoulder arthroplasty for post-capsulorrhaphy arthropathy.
      While none of the included studies performed sub-group analyses on shoulder arthroplasty outcomes based on the specific type of prior stabilization procedure (soft tissue vs. bony procedure), 3 studies
      • Chalmers BWEH M.T.
      • Sperling J.W.
      • Cofield R.H.
      • Sanchez-Sotello J.
      Outcomes of primary reverse shoulder arthroplasty for dislocation arthropathy.
      ,
      • Lehmann L.
      • Magosch P.
      • Mauermann E.
      • Lichtenberg S.
      • Habermeyer P.
      Total shoulder arthroplasty in dislocation arthropathy.
      ,
      • Matsoukis J.
      • Tabib W.
      • Guiffault P.
      • Mandelbaum A.
      • Walch G.
      • Némoz C.
      Shoulder arthroplasty in patients with a prior anterior shoulder dislocation. Results of a multicenter study.
      performed a sub-analysis by type of anterior stabilization management (nonoperative or operative).
      In general, studies found that a history of prior ASI did not affect postoperative subjective outcomes following shoulder arthroplasty.
      • Bender M.J.
      • Morris B.J.
      • Sheth M.M.
      • Laughlin M.S.
      • Budeyri A.
      • Le R.K.
      • et al.
      Outcomes of total shoulder arthroplasty for instability arthropathy with a prior coracoid transfer procedure: a retrospective review and matched cohort.
      ,
      • Cadet E.R.
      • Kok P.
      • Greiwe R.M.
      • Chan A.
      • Ahmad C.S.
      • Levine W.N.
      • et al.
      Intermediate and long-term follow-up of total shoulder arthroplasty for the management of postcapsulorrhaphy arthropathy.
      ,
      • Cuff D.J.
      • Santoni B.G.
      Anatomic total shoulder arthroplasty versus reverse total shoulder arthroplasty for post-capsulorrhaphy arthropathy.
      ,
      • Hasler A.
      • Fornaciari P.
      • Jungwirth-Weinberger A.
      • Jentzsch T.
      • Wieser K.
      • Gerber C.
      Reverse shoulder arthroplasty in the treatment of glenohumeral instability.
      ,
      • Merolla G.
      • Cerciello S.
      • Marenco S.
      • Fabbri E.
      • Paladini P.
      • Porcellini G.
      Comparison of shoulder replacement to treat osteoarthritis secondary to instability surgery and primary osteoarthritis: a retrospective controlled study of patient outcomes.
      ,
      • Ode G.E.
      • Ling D.
      • Finocchiaro A.
      • Lai E.Y.
      • Taylor S.A.
      • Dines J.
      • et al.
      Clinical characteristics and patient-reported outcomes of total shoulder arthroplasty after anterior stabilization: a retrospective matched control study.
      ,
      • Patel M.K.
      • Stone W.Z.
      • Struk A.M.
      • Farmer K.W.
      • Wright T.W.
      • King J.J.
      Shoulder arthroplasty after prior anterior stabilization procedures: do reverses have better outcomes?.
      Moreover, among the studies that performed a sub-group analysis by type of prior anterior stabilization management,
      • Chalmers BWEH M.T.
      • Sperling J.W.
      • Cofield R.H.
      • Sanchez-Sotello J.
      Outcomes of primary reverse shoulder arthroplasty for dislocation arthropathy.
      ,
      • Lehmann L.
      • Magosch P.
      • Mauermann E.
      • Lichtenberg S.
      • Habermeyer P.
      Total shoulder arthroplasty in dislocation arthropathy.
      ,
      • Matsoukis J.
      • Tabib W.
      • Guiffault P.
      • Mandelbaum A.
      • Walch G.
      • Némoz C.
      Shoulder arthroplasty in patients with a prior anterior shoulder dislocation. Results of a multicenter study.
      none found a significant difference in postoperative subjective outcomes between nonoperative and operative intervention following shoulder arthroplasty. All studies recorded significant increase in patient-reported outcomes preoperatively to postoperatively in patients with a history of anterior instability, among the most commonly reported were the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES) and Constant Score.
      • Bender M.J.
      • Morris B.J.
      • Sheth M.M.
      • Laughlin M.S.
      • Budeyri A.
      • Le R.K.
      • et al.
      Outcomes of total shoulder arthroplasty for instability arthropathy with a prior coracoid transfer procedure: a retrospective review and matched cohort.
      ,
      • Cadet E.R.
      • Kok P.
      • Greiwe R.M.
      • Chan A.
      • Ahmad C.S.
      • Levine W.N.
      • et al.
      Intermediate and long-term follow-up of total shoulder arthroplasty for the management of postcapsulorrhaphy arthropathy.
      ,
      • Clavert P.
      • Kling A.
      • Sirveaux F.
      • Favard L.
      • Mole D.
      • Walch G.
      • et al.
      Reverse shoulder arthroplasty for instability arthropathy.
      ,
      • Cuff D.J.
      • Santoni B.G.
      Anatomic total shoulder arthroplasty versus reverse total shoulder arthroplasty for post-capsulorrhaphy arthropathy.
      ,
      • Lehmann L.
      • Magosch P.
      • Mauermann E.
      • Lichtenberg S.
      • Habermeyer P.
      Total shoulder arthroplasty in dislocation arthropathy.
      ,
      • Merolla G.
      • Cerciello S.
      • Marenco S.
      • Fabbri E.
      • Paladini P.
      • Porcellini G.
      Comparison of shoulder replacement to treat osteoarthritis secondary to instability surgery and primary osteoarthritis: a retrospective controlled study of patient outcomes.
      ,
      • Ode G.E.
      • Ling D.
      • Finocchiaro A.
      • Lai E.Y.
      • Taylor S.A.
      • Dines J.
      • et al.
      Clinical characteristics and patient-reported outcomes of total shoulder arthroplasty after anterior stabilization: a retrospective matched control study.
      ,
      • Patel M.K.
      • Stone W.Z.
      • Struk A.M.
      • Farmer K.W.
      • Wright T.W.
      • King J.J.
      Shoulder arthroplasty after prior anterior stabilization procedures: do reverses have better outcomes?.
      ,
      • Raiss P.
      • Zeifang F.
      • Pons-Villanueva J.
      • Smithers C.J.
      • Loew M.
      • Walch G.
      Reverse arthroplasty for osteoarthritis and rotator cuff deficiency after previous surgery for recurrent anterior shoulder instability.
      ,
      • Willemot L.B.
      • Elhassan B.T.
      • Sperling J.W.
      • Cofield R.H.
      • Sanchez-Sotelo J.
      Arthroplasty for glenohumeral arthritis in shoulders with a previous Bristow or Latarjet procedure.
      For patients who underwent rTSA, improvement in ASES scores ranged from Δ 41.0 to Δ 51.1,
      • Cuff D.J.
      • Santoni B.G.
      Anatomic total shoulder arthroplasty versus reverse total shoulder arthroplasty for post-capsulorrhaphy arthropathy.
      ,
      • Patel M.K.
      • Stone W.Z.
      • Struk A.M.
      • Farmer K.W.
      • Wright T.W.
      • King J.J.
      Shoulder arthroplasty after prior anterior stabilization procedures: do reverses have better outcomes?.
      while improvement in those who underwent TSA ranged from Δ 24.8 to Δ 45.0 (Fig. 2).
      • Bender M.J.
      • Morris B.J.
      • Sheth M.M.
      • Laughlin M.S.
      • Budeyri A.
      • Le R.K.
      • et al.
      Outcomes of total shoulder arthroplasty for instability arthropathy with a prior coracoid transfer procedure: a retrospective review and matched cohort.
      ,
      • Cadet E.R.
      • Kok P.
      • Greiwe R.M.
      • Chan A.
      • Ahmad C.S.
      • Levine W.N.
      • et al.
      Intermediate and long-term follow-up of total shoulder arthroplasty for the management of postcapsulorrhaphy arthropathy.
      ,
      • Cuff D.J.
      • Santoni B.G.
      Anatomic total shoulder arthroplasty versus reverse total shoulder arthroplasty for post-capsulorrhaphy arthropathy.
      ,
      • Ode G.E.
      • Ling D.
      • Finocchiaro A.
      • Lai E.Y.
      • Taylor S.A.
      • Dines J.
      • et al.
      Clinical characteristics and patient-reported outcomes of total shoulder arthroplasty after anterior stabilization: a retrospective matched control study.
      ,
      • Patel M.K.
      • Stone W.Z.
      • Struk A.M.
      • Farmer K.W.
      • Wright T.W.
      • King J.J.
      Shoulder arthroplasty after prior anterior stabilization procedures: do reverses have better outcomes?.
      Improvement in preoperative to postoperative Constant Scores was more variable between arthroplasty techniques, however, both rTSA (Δ 22.0-Δ 59.9)
      • Clavert P.
      • Kling A.
      • Sirveaux F.
      • Favard L.
      • Mole D.
      • Walch G.
      • et al.
      Reverse shoulder arthroplasty for instability arthropathy.
      ,
      • Hasler A.
      • Fornaciari P.
      • Jungwirth-Weinberger A.
      • Jentzsch T.
      • Wieser K.
      • Gerber C.
      Reverse shoulder arthroplasty in the treatment of glenohumeral instability.
      ,
      • Patel M.K.
      • Stone W.Z.
      • Struk A.M.
      • Farmer K.W.
      • Wright T.W.
      • King J.J.
      Shoulder arthroplasty after prior anterior stabilization procedures: do reverses have better outcomes?.
      ,
      • Raiss P.
      • Zeifang F.
      • Pons-Villanueva J.
      • Smithers C.J.
      • Loew M.
      • Walch G.
      Reverse arthroplasty for osteoarthritis and rotator cuff deficiency after previous surgery for recurrent anterior shoulder instability.
      and TSA (Δ 24.8-Δ 43.5)
      • Lehmann L.
      • Magosch P.
      • Mauermann E.
      • Lichtenberg S.
      • Habermeyer P.
      Total shoulder arthroplasty in dislocation arthropathy.
      ,
      • Matsoukis J.
      • Tabib W.
      • Guiffault P.
      • Mandelbaum A.
      • Walch G.
      • Némoz C.
      Shoulder arthroplasty in patients with a prior anterior shoulder dislocation. Results of a multicenter study.
      ,
      • Merolla G.
      • Cerciello S.
      • Marenco S.
      • Fabbri E.
      • Paladini P.
      • Porcellini G.
      Comparison of shoulder replacement to treat osteoarthritis secondary to instability surgery and primary osteoarthritis: a retrospective controlled study of patient outcomes.
      ,
      • Patel M.K.
      • Stone W.Z.
      • Struk A.M.
      • Farmer K.W.
      • Wright T.W.
      • King J.J.
      Shoulder arthroplasty after prior anterior stabilization procedures: do reverses have better outcomes?.
      cohorts significantly improved (Fig. 3). While most of the reviewed studies reported no significant differences in postoperative outcomes between arthroplasty techniques,
      • Cuff D.J.
      • Santoni B.G.
      Anatomic total shoulder arthroplasty versus reverse total shoulder arthroplasty for post-capsulorrhaphy arthropathy.
      ,
      • Green A.
      • Norris T.R.
      Shoulder arthroplasty for advanced glenohumeral arthritis after anterior instability repair.
      ,
      • Merolla G.
      • Cerciello S.
      • Marenco S.
      • Fabbri E.
      • Paladini P.
      • Porcellini G.
      Comparison of shoulder replacement to treat osteoarthritis secondary to instability surgery and primary osteoarthritis: a retrospective controlled study of patient outcomes.
      ,
      • Willemot L.B.
      • Elhassan B.T.
      • Sperling J.W.
      • Cofield R.H.
      • Sanchez-Sotelo J.
      Arthroplasty for glenohumeral arthritis in shoulders with a previous Bristow or Latarjet procedure.
      Patel et al was a notable outlier, reporting that rTSA patients with prior anterior stabilization surgery had better (trending toward significance) mean postoperative outcomes for ASES, Simple Shoulder Test, and Constant Scores, and significantly better postoperative SPADI-130 scores (P = .049) than the TSA group.
      • Patel M.K.
      • Stone W.Z.
      • Struk A.M.
      • Farmer K.W.
      • Wright T.W.
      • King J.J.
      Shoulder arthroplasty after prior anterior stabilization procedures: do reverses have better outcomes?.
      None of the included studies that used HA stratified postoperative subjective outcomes in their results, and therefore, could not be reported in the current review.
      • Green A.
      • Norris T.R.
      Shoulder arthroplasty for advanced glenohumeral arthritis after anterior instability repair.
      ,
      • Lehmann L.
      • Magosch P.
      • Mauermann E.
      • Lichtenberg S.
      • Habermeyer P.
      Total shoulder arthroplasty in dislocation arthropathy.
      ,
      • Merolla G.
      • Cerciello S.
      • Marenco S.
      • Fabbri E.
      • Paladini P.
      • Porcellini G.
      Comparison of shoulder replacement to treat osteoarthritis secondary to instability surgery and primary osteoarthritis: a retrospective controlled study of patient outcomes.
      ,
      • Sperling J.W.
      • Antuna S.A.
      • Sanchez-Sotelo J.
      • Schleck C.
      • Cofield R.H.
      Shoulder arthroplasty for arthritis after instability surgery.
      ,
      • Willemot L.B.
      • Elhassan B.T.
      • Sperling J.W.
      • Cofield R.H.
      • Sanchez-Sotelo J.
      Arthroplasty for glenohumeral arthritis in shoulders with a previous Bristow or Latarjet procedure.
      Figure thumbnail gr2
      Figure 2Forest plot of mean preoperative to postoperative reported ASES scores with 95% confidence intervals in patients with a history of prior anterior instability, by type of arthroplasty. Significant improvement in ASES was reported in all seven cases. Patel et al found that patients with prior anterior instability who underwent rTSA had notably better (trending toward significance) postoperative ASES scores than those who underwent TSA (P = .085). ASES, American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons; TSA, total shoulder arthroplasty; rTSA, reverse total shoulder arthroplasty.
      Figure thumbnail gr3
      Figure 3Forest plot of mean preoperative to postoperative reported Constant Scores with 95% confidence intervals in patients with a history of prior anterior instability, by type of arthroplasty. Significant improvement in Constant was reported in all eight cases. Patel et al found that in patients with prior anterior instability who underwent rTSA, the groups’ mean Constant Scores were above the minimal clinically important differences in comparison with the TSA groups’ scores. TSA, total shoulder arthroplasty; rTSA, reverse total shoulder arthroplasty.
      While the reviewed studies found that a history of prior ASI generally does not affect postoperative ROM following shoulder arthroplasty,
      • Bender M.J.
      • Morris B.J.
      • Sheth M.M.
      • Laughlin M.S.
      • Budeyri A.
      • Le R.K.
      • et al.
      Outcomes of total shoulder arthroplasty for instability arthropathy with a prior coracoid transfer procedure: a retrospective review and matched cohort.
      ,
      • Cuff D.J.
      • Santoni B.G.
      Anatomic total shoulder arthroplasty versus reverse total shoulder arthroplasty for post-capsulorrhaphy arthropathy.
      ,
      • Hasler A.
      • Fornaciari P.
      • Jungwirth-Weinberger A.
      • Jentzsch T.
      • Wieser K.
      • Gerber C.
      Reverse shoulder arthroplasty in the treatment of glenohumeral instability.
      ,
      • Lehmann L.
      • Magosch P.
      • Mauermann E.
      • Lichtenberg S.
      • Habermeyer P.
      Total shoulder arthroplasty in dislocation arthropathy.
      ,
      • Merolla G.
      • Cerciello S.
      • Marenco S.
      • Fabbri E.
      • Paladini P.
      • Porcellini G.
      Comparison of shoulder replacement to treat osteoarthritis secondary to instability surgery and primary osteoarthritis: a retrospective controlled study of patient outcomes.
      ,
      • Ode G.E.
      • Ling D.
      • Finocchiaro A.
      • Lai E.Y.
      • Taylor S.A.
      • Dines J.
      • et al.
      Clinical characteristics and patient-reported outcomes of total shoulder arthroplasty after anterior stabilization: a retrospective matched control study.
      ,
      • Patel M.K.
      • Stone W.Z.
      • Struk A.M.
      • Farmer K.W.
      • Wright T.W.
      • King J.J.
      Shoulder arthroplasty after prior anterior stabilization procedures: do reverses have better outcomes?.
      ,
      • Sperling J.W.
      • Antuna S.A.
      • Sanchez-Sotelo J.
      • Schleck C.
      • Cofield R.H.
      Shoulder arthroplasty for arthritis after instability surgery.
      the effect of specific arthroplasty technique on postoperative function remains less definitive. All studies recorded significant increase in preoperative to postoperative ROM, among the most commonly reported were forward elevation (FE) and external rotation (ER).
      • Cadet E.R.
      • Kok P.
      • Greiwe R.M.
      • Chan A.
      • Ahmad C.S.
      • Levine W.N.
      • et al.
      Intermediate and long-term follow-up of total shoulder arthroplasty for the management of postcapsulorrhaphy arthropathy.
      ,
      • Clavert P.
      • Kling A.
      • Sirveaux F.
      • Favard L.
      • Mole D.
      • Walch G.
      • et al.
      Reverse shoulder arthroplasty for instability arthropathy.
      ,
      • Cuff D.J.
      • Santoni B.G.
      Anatomic total shoulder arthroplasty versus reverse total shoulder arthroplasty for post-capsulorrhaphy arthropathy.
      ,
      • Green A.
      • Norris T.R.
      Shoulder arthroplasty for advanced glenohumeral arthritis after anterior instability repair.
      ,
      • Hasler A.
      • Fornaciari P.
      • Jungwirth-Weinberger A.
      • Jentzsch T.
      • Wieser K.
      • Gerber C.
      Reverse shoulder arthroplasty in the treatment of glenohumeral instability.
      ,
      • Lehmann L.
      • Magosch P.
      • Mauermann E.
      • Lichtenberg S.
      • Habermeyer P.
      Total shoulder arthroplasty in dislocation arthropathy.
      ,
      • Matsoukis J.
      • Tabib W.
      • Guiffault P.
      • Mandelbaum A.
      • Walch G.
      • Némoz C.
      Shoulder arthroplasty in patients with a prior anterior shoulder dislocation. Results of a multicenter study.
      ,
      • Merolla G.
      • Cerciello S.
      • Marenco S.
      • Fabbri E.
      • Paladini P.
      • Porcellini G.
      Comparison of shoulder replacement to treat osteoarthritis secondary to instability surgery and primary osteoarthritis: a retrospective controlled study of patient outcomes.
      ,
      • Patel M.K.
      • Stone W.Z.
      • Struk A.M.
      • Farmer K.W.
      • Wright T.W.
      • King J.J.
      Shoulder arthroplasty after prior anterior stabilization procedures: do reverses have better outcomes?.
      ,
      • Raiss P.
      • Zeifang F.
      • Pons-Villanueva J.
      • Smithers C.J.
      • Loew M.
      • Walch G.
      Reverse arthroplasty for osteoarthritis and rotator cuff deficiency after previous surgery for recurrent anterior shoulder instability.
      ,
      • Sperling J.W.
      • Antuna S.A.
      • Sanchez-Sotelo J.
      • Schleck C.
      • Cofield R.H.
      Shoulder arthroplasty for arthritis after instability surgery.
      For patients who underwent rTSA with prior ASI, improvement in FE ranged from Δ 19.0° to Δ 69.0°,
      • Clavert P.
      • Kling A.
      • Sirveaux F.
      • Favard L.
      • Mole D.
      • Walch G.
      • et al.
      Reverse shoulder arthroplasty for instability arthropathy.
      ,
      • Cuff D.J.
      • Santoni B.G.
      Anatomic total shoulder arthroplasty versus reverse total shoulder arthroplasty for post-capsulorrhaphy arthropathy.
      ,
      • Hasler A.
      • Fornaciari P.
      • Jungwirth-Weinberger A.
      • Jentzsch T.
      • Wieser K.
      • Gerber C.
      Reverse shoulder arthroplasty in the treatment of glenohumeral instability.
      ,
      • Patel M.K.
      • Stone W.Z.
      • Struk A.M.
      • Farmer K.W.
      • Wright T.W.
      • King J.J.
      Shoulder arthroplasty after prior anterior stabilization procedures: do reverses have better outcomes?.
      ,
      • Raiss P.
      • Zeifang F.
      • Pons-Villanueva J.
      • Smithers C.J.
      • Loew M.
      • Walch G.
      Reverse arthroplasty for osteoarthritis and rotator cuff deficiency after previous surgery for recurrent anterior shoulder instability.
      while improvement in those who underwent TSA ranged from Δ 19.0° to Δ 57.0° (Fig. 4).
      • Cadet E.R.
      • Kok P.
      • Greiwe R.M.
      • Chan A.
      • Ahmad C.S.
      • Levine W.N.
      • et al.
      Intermediate and long-term follow-up of total shoulder arthroplasty for the management of postcapsulorrhaphy arthropathy.
      ,
      • Cuff D.J.
      • Santoni B.G.
      Anatomic total shoulder arthroplasty versus reverse total shoulder arthroplasty for post-capsulorrhaphy arthropathy.
      ,
      • Green A.
      • Norris T.R.
      Shoulder arthroplasty for advanced glenohumeral arthritis after anterior instability repair.
      ,
      • Lehmann L.
      • Magosch P.
      • Mauermann E.
      • Lichtenberg S.
      • Habermeyer P.
      Total shoulder arthroplasty in dislocation arthropathy.
      ,
      • Matsoukis J.
      • Tabib W.
      • Guiffault P.
      • Mandelbaum A.
      • Walch G.
      • Némoz C.
      Shoulder arthroplasty in patients with a prior anterior shoulder dislocation. Results of a multicenter study.
      ,
      • Merolla G.
      • Cerciello S.
      • Marenco S.
      • Fabbri E.
      • Paladini P.
      • Porcellini G.
      Comparison of shoulder replacement to treat osteoarthritis secondary to instability surgery and primary osteoarthritis: a retrospective controlled study of patient outcomes.
      ,
      • Patel M.K.
      • Stone W.Z.
      • Struk A.M.
      • Farmer K.W.
      • Wright T.W.
      • King J.J.
      Shoulder arthroplasty after prior anterior stabilization procedures: do reverses have better outcomes?.
      Improvement in preoperative to postoperative ER was considerably more variable between arthroplasty techniques. However, for patients treated with TSA, ER improvement ranged from Δ 13.0° to Δ 42.5°,
      • Cadet E.R.
      • Kok P.
      • Greiwe R.M.
      • Chan A.
      • Ahmad C.S.
      • Levine W.N.
      • et al.
      Intermediate and long-term follow-up of total shoulder arthroplasty for the management of postcapsulorrhaphy arthropathy.
      ,
      • Cuff D.J.
      • Santoni B.G.
      Anatomic total shoulder arthroplasty versus reverse total shoulder arthroplasty for post-capsulorrhaphy arthropathy.
      ,
      • Green A.
      • Norris T.R.
      Shoulder arthroplasty for advanced glenohumeral arthritis after anterior instability repair.
      ,
      • Lehmann L.
      • Magosch P.
      • Mauermann E.
      • Lichtenberg S.
      • Habermeyer P.
      Total shoulder arthroplasty in dislocation arthropathy.
      ,
      • Matsoukis J.
      • Tabib W.
      • Guiffault P.
      • Mandelbaum A.
      • Walch G.
      • Némoz C.
      Shoulder arthroplasty in patients with a prior anterior shoulder dislocation. Results of a multicenter study.
      ,
      • Merolla G.
      • Cerciello S.
      • Marenco S.
      • Fabbri E.
      • Paladini P.
      • Porcellini G.
      Comparison of shoulder replacement to treat osteoarthritis secondary to instability surgery and primary osteoarthritis: a retrospective controlled study of patient outcomes.
      ,
      • Patel M.K.
      • Stone W.Z.
      • Struk A.M.
      • Farmer K.W.
      • Wright T.W.
      • King J.J.
      Shoulder arthroplasty after prior anterior stabilization procedures: do reverses have better outcomes?.
      while those with rTSA improved by only Δ 0°-Δ 29.0° (Fig. 5).
      • Clavert P.
      • Kling A.
      • Sirveaux F.
      • Favard L.
      • Mole D.
      • Walch G.
      • et al.
      Reverse shoulder arthroplasty for instability arthropathy.
      ,
      • Cuff D.J.
      • Santoni B.G.
      Anatomic total shoulder arthroplasty versus reverse total shoulder arthroplasty for post-capsulorrhaphy arthropathy.
      ,
      • Hasler A.
      • Fornaciari P.
      • Jungwirth-Weinberger A.
      • Jentzsch T.
      • Wieser K.
      • Gerber C.
      Reverse shoulder arthroplasty in the treatment of glenohumeral instability.
      ,
      • Patel M.K.
      • Stone W.Z.
      • Struk A.M.
      • Farmer K.W.
      • Wright T.W.
      • King J.J.
      Shoulder arthroplasty after prior anterior stabilization procedures: do reverses have better outcomes?.
      ,
      • Raiss P.
      • Zeifang F.
      • Pons-Villanueva J.
      • Smithers C.J.
      • Loew M.
      • Walch G.
      Reverse arthroplasty for osteoarthritis and rotator cuff deficiency after previous surgery for recurrent anterior shoulder instability.
      Interestingly, Cadet et al found that patients who had not had prior surgery had greater postoperative FE and ER (P = .36, P = .04, respectively) than patients with prior anterior stabilization, although both groups improved significantly preoperatively to postoperatively.
      • Cadet E.R.
      • Kok P.
      • Greiwe R.M.
      • Chan A.
      • Ahmad C.S.
      • Levine W.N.
      • et al.
      Intermediate and long-term follow-up of total shoulder arthroplasty for the management of postcapsulorrhaphy arthropathy.
      Willemont et al
      • Willemot L.B.
      • Elhassan B.T.
      • Sperling J.W.
      • Cofield R.H.
      • Sanchez-Sotelo J.
      Arthroplasty for glenohumeral arthritis in shoulders with a previous Bristow or Latarjet procedure.
      was the only study that stratified ROM outcomes for patients treated with HA. Preoperative to postoperative increase in FE (Δ 52.5°, P = .03) and ER (Δ 15.0°, P > .05) was observed in patients who underwent HA with prior ASI. None of the literature reported significant differences in outcomes between HA and other arthroplasty techniques,
      • Green A.
      • Norris T.R.
      Shoulder arthroplasty for advanced glenohumeral arthritis after anterior instability repair.
      ,
      • Merolla G.
      • Cerciello S.
      • Marenco S.
      • Fabbri E.
      • Paladini P.
      • Porcellini G.
      Comparison of shoulder replacement to treat osteoarthritis secondary to instability surgery and primary osteoarthritis: a retrospective controlled study of patient outcomes.
      or differences between HA outcomes in patients with and without prior ASI.
      • Sperling J.W.
      • Antuna S.A.
      • Sanchez-Sotelo J.
      • Schleck C.
      • Cofield R.H.
      Shoulder arthroplasty for arthritis after instability surgery.
      ,
      • Lehmann L.
      • Magosch P.
      • Mauermann E.
      • Lichtenberg S.
      • Habermeyer P.
      Total shoulder arthroplasty in dislocation arthropathy.
      ,
      • Merolla G.
      • Cerciello S.
      • Marenco S.
      • Fabbri E.
      • Paladini P.
      • Porcellini G.
      Comparison of shoulder replacement to treat osteoarthritis secondary to instability surgery and primary osteoarthritis: a retrospective controlled study of patient outcomes.
      Figure thumbnail gr4
      Figure 4Forest plot of mean preoperative to postoperative reported forward elevation (FE) with 95% confidence intervals in patients with a history of prior anterior instability, by type of arthroplasty. Significant improvement in FE was reported in all eight cases. Cuff et al found that patients treated with a TSA had significantly greater FE postoperatively compared to those treated with rTSA (153 vs. 139, P = .010), although both groups showed significant improvement in all planes of motion preoperatively to postoperatively. TSA, total shoulder arthroplasty; rTSA, reverse total shoulder arthroplasty.
      Figure thumbnail gr5
      Figure 5Forest plot of mean preoperative to postoperative reported external rotation (ER) with 95% confidence intervals in patients with a history of prior anterior instability, by type of arthroplasty. Significant improvement in ER was reported in seven of the eight cases. Raiss et al did not find significant improvement in ER (P = .55).
      With regards to the altered anatomy that a surgeon might encounter and the theoretical increased risk of complications after shoulder arthroplasty, Bender et al did not show a significant difference in complications rates.
      • Bender M.J.
      • Morris B.J.
      • Laughlin M.S.
      • Sheth M.M.
      • Budeyri A.
      • Le R.K.
      • et al.
      Early complication rates following total shoulder arthroplasty for instability arthropathy with a prior coracoid transfer procedure.
      However, Sperling et al did remark that there was a higher risk of failure in patients who underwent TSA with prior anterior instability surgery (including open capsulolabral repair, the Bristow procedure, the Putti-Platt procedure, the Magnuson-Stack procedure, arthroscopic capsulolabral repair, and bone-block procedures).
      • Sperling J.W.
      • Antuna S.A.
      • Sanchez-Sotelo J.
      • Schleck C.
      • Cofield R.H.
      Shoulder arthroplasty for arthritis after instability surgery.
      The authors proposed that high failure rates, which were due to posterior instability in all patients (n = 3), were likely a result of inadequate anterior soft tissue flexibility which forced the humeral head posteriorly.
      • Sperling J.W.
      • Antuna S.A.
      • Sanchez-Sotelo J.
      • Schleck C.
      • Cofield R.H.
      Shoulder arthroplasty for arthritis after instability surgery.
      Cuff et al, in their comparison of TSA and rTSA, did show that the alteration of the subscapularis and capsule leads to greater instances of instability after TSA compared to rTSA.
      • Cuff D.J.
      • Santoni B.G.
      Anatomic total shoulder arthroplasty versus reverse total shoulder arthroplasty for post-capsulorrhaphy arthropathy.
      Overall, the included studies found that shoulder arthroplasty in the setting of prior anterior instability procedures resulted in improvement in patient-reported outcomes and increased ROM. However, careful soft tissue balancing and adequate tissue release, which are fundamental for shoulder arthroplasty in general, are critical for successful arthroplasty among patients who have had previous stabilization procedures.
      • Sperling J.W.
      • Antuna S.A.
      • Sanchez-Sotelo J.
      • Schleck C.
      • Cofield R.H.
      Shoulder arthroplasty for arthritis after instability surgery.

      Discussion

      Evaluation of the literature

      Current available literature reports the impact of prior ASI on shoulder arthroplasty outcomes to be highly variable. This is likely due to shoulder arthroplasty being a comparatively new procedure, and the lack of well-powered, prospective cohort studies that evaluate specific anterior stabilization management both nonoperatively and operatively as a predictive factor. Despite the paucity of appropriately powered literature, the available studies suggest that shoulder arthroplasty in the setting of prior anterior instability yields improved subjective and functional outcome scores that are comparable to patients without a history of instability. Moreover, while a majority of the included literature did not report significant differences in outcomes between arthroplasty techniques, the current review suggests variability in postoperative outcomes between TSA and rTSA procedures in patients with a history of prior ASI. Future studies and discussion regarding the effect of specific prior anterior instability management on shoulder arthroplasty outcomes require more stringent evaluation.
      The absence of literature that stratifies shoulder arthroplasty outcomes by specific type prior stabilization procedure highlights an existing gap in our current understanding of how prior operative management techniques, and their associated risk factors, may guide treatment algorithms for failed shoulder stabilization or recurrent ASI. Prior open surgical management of recurrent ASI often requires a degree of violation of the subscapularis and/or anterior capsule to prevent recurrent instability. This is often performed by tightening the shoulder joint anteriorly. Operations such as the Putti-Platt or Magnuson-Stack procedures disrupt native anatomy through either shortening or transferring the subscapularis muscle and tendon. Many other open procedures that do not directly address the subscapularis, such as an open Bankart or capsulorrhaphy, still require a take down or repair of the subscapularis. In such cases, the residual subscapularis is relied upon to heal and provide stability.
      • Cuff D.J.
      • Santoni B.G.
      Anatomic total shoulder arthroplasty versus reverse total shoulder arthroplasty for post-capsulorrhaphy arthropathy.
      Sperling et al illustrate the potential consequences of prior subscapularis violation in their retrospective case series, observing that all cases of failure after anatomic TSA were due to inadequate anterior soft tissue flexibility from prior stabilization procedures which forced the humeral head posteriorly.
      • Sperling J.W.
      • Antuna S.A.
      • Sanchez-Sotelo J.
      • Schleck C.
      • Cofield R.H.
      Shoulder arthroplasty for arthritis after instability surgery.
      Alternatively, Patel et al reported that rTSA patients with prior anterior stabilization surgery had better (trending toward significance) mean postoperative outcomes for ASES, Simple Shoulder Test, and Constant Scores, and significantly better postoperative Shoulder Pain and Disability Index (SPADI)-130 scores than the TSA group.
      • Patel M.K.
      • Stone W.Z.
      • Struk A.M.
      • Farmer K.W.
      • Wright T.W.
      • King J.J.
      Shoulder arthroplasty after prior anterior stabilization procedures: do reverses have better outcomes?.
      Among patients who undergo subsequent TSA, a procedure which relies heavily on a complex soft tissue repair of the rotator cuff, there is a reasonable concern for the viability or strength of the residual musculature that must be considered. In instances of prior anterior stabilization surgeries in which the subscapularis integrity is altered, management with rTSA, where the reverse ball-and-socket structure utilizes the deltoid more than the rotator cuff for stability, may be more amenable.
      • Walker M.
      • Brooks J.
      • Willis M.
      • Frankle M.
      How reverse shoulder arthroplasty works.
      The findings from this review, along with our current understandings of shoulder arthroplasty mechanics, emphasize the importance of a thorough evaluation of prior operative reports and a careful review of preoperative imaging. This will allow surgeons to recognize frequently distorted anatomy and facilitate management strategies.
      Prior ASI management with bony augmentation procedures, such as the Latarjet, may also serve as a fundamental determinant of appropriate shoulder arthroplasty technique. Coracoid graft malpositioning in the setting of Bristow and Latarjet procedures is believed to play an important role in the development of postoperative osteoarthritis.
      • Willemot L.B.
      • Elhassan B.T.
      • Sperling J.W.
      • Cofield R.H.
      • Sanchez-Sotelo J.
      Arthroplasty for glenohumeral arthritis in shoulders with a previous Bristow or Latarjet procedure.
      In their retrospective case series, Willemot et al found that postoperative shoulder instability in patients with a previous Bristow or Latarjet procedure that underwent a TSA or HA was significantly more common than in rTSA patients.
      • Willemot L.B.
      • Elhassan B.T.
      • Sperling J.W.
      • Cofield R.H.
      • Sanchez-Sotelo J.
      Arthroplasty for glenohumeral arthritis in shoulders with a previous Bristow or Latarjet procedure.
      The authors determined that graft malpositioning in TSA and HA patients was a driving cause for failure and was avoided in patients treated with rTSA, a technique which does not rely on correct anatomical alignment of the native glenoid against the humeral head. In Bender et al’s retrospective cohort study, however, the universal use of rTSA for instability arthropathy following coracoid transfer was challenged.
      • Bender M.J.
      • Morris B.J.
      • Sheth M.M.
      • Laughlin M.S.
      • Budeyri A.
      • Le R.K.
      • et al.
      Outcomes of total shoulder arthroplasty for instability arthropathy with a prior coracoid transfer procedure: a retrospective review and matched cohort.
      The authors found no significant difference in complication rates between patients who underwent TSA with a history of prior coracoid transfer and the control group. Discrepancies in the current literature regarding appropriate management of instability arthropathy following coracoid transfer, a pathology that primarily presents at a younger mean age (40s to 50s years), warrant further investigation to determine the adequacy of anatomic TSA as an alternative to rTSA in younger patient populations.
      • Bender M.J.
      • Morris B.J.
      • Sheth M.M.
      • Laughlin M.S.
      • Budeyri A.
      • Le R.K.
      • et al.
      Outcomes of total shoulder arthroplasty for instability arthropathy with a prior coracoid transfer procedure: a retrospective review and matched cohort.

      Limitations

      There are several notable limitations of the current review. Systematic reviews are inherently limited by the relevant data reported in the literature. While shoulder arthroplasty procedures are increasing in popularity, few well-powered, prospective cohort studies exist that evaluate particular anterior stabilization management both nonoperatively and operatively as a predictive factor in shoulder arthroplasty. Most of the included studies did not breakdown outcomes by type of prior stabilization (nonoperative, soft tissue, bony stabilization), and therefore did not allow for a comprehensive evaluation. Additionally, there were many different types of implant designs used among the included studies; for example, lateralization of the implant, either on the humeral or glenosphere component can alter the biomechanics of the implant and the relative impact that each muscle has on ROM, and therefore patient satisfaction with a procedure and its outcomes. These factors impact the strength of conclusions that we can draw from this review.

      Conclusion

      Shoulder arthroplasty in the setting of prior ASI results in improved subjective and functional outcome scores that are comparable to patients without a history of instability.

      Disclaimers

      Funding: No funding was disclosed by the authors.
      Conflicts of interest: Peter J. Millett: Dr. Millett receives royalties and consultant payments from Arthrex, Inc. and Smith & Nephew, which is related to the subject of this work. Matthew T. Provencher: Dr. Provencher receives royalties and consultant payments from Arthrex, Inc., which is related to the subject of this work. The other authors, their immediate families, and any research foundation with which they are affiliated have not received any financial payments or other benefits from any commercial entity related to the subject of this article.

      Supplementary Data

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