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Prognostic factors for improvement of shoulder function after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair: a systematic review

Open AccessPublished:September 28, 2022DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jseint.2022.09.003

      Abstract

      Background

      The identification of factors that specify prognostic models for postoperative results should be based on the best scientific evidence and expert assessment. We aimed to identify, map and evaluate potential prognostic factors for the improvement of shoulder function in patients undergoing arthroscopic rotator cuff repair.

      Methods

      Longitudinal primary studies of arthroscopic rotator cuff repair reporting any multivariable factor analyses for shoulder function improvement with an endpoint assessment of at least 6 months were included. We systematically searched EMBASE, Medline, and Scopus for articles published between January 2014 and June 2021. The risk of bias of included studies and the quality of evidence were assessed using the Quality in Prognosis Studies tool and an adapted Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluations framework.

      Results

      Overall, 24 studies including 73 outcome analyses were included. We classified younger age and smaller tear size as probably prognostic for a greater improvement in objective outcomes. Shorter symptom duration, absence of a worker compensation claim, low preoperative level of functional status, and high preoperative pain level were classified as probably prognostic for greater improvement in patient-reported outcome measures. The quality of the synthesized evidence was low. Twenty-one studies had an overall high risk of bias.

      Conclusion

      Six potential prognostic factors for shoulder function after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair were identified. Along with ongoing expert opinion assessments, they will feed into a prognostic model-building process.

      Keywords

      List of abbreviations:

      β (Regression coefficient), ASES (American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons), ARCR (Arthroscopic Rotator Cuff Repair), CHARMS-PF (Checklist for Critical Appraisal and data extraction for systematic reviews of prediction modelling studies for prognostic factors), MCID (Minimal clinically important difference), MOI (Maximal outcome improvement), OR (Odds ratio), PASS (Patient acceptable symptom state), PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis), PROM (Patient-reported outcome measure), QUIPS (Quality in prognosis study), TRIPOD (Transparent reporting of a multivariable prediction model for individual prognosis or diagnosis), SCB (Substantial clinical benefit), SST (Simple Shoulder Test), SSV (Subjective Shoulder Value), UCLA (University of California Los Angeles), VAS (Visual Analog Scale), WORC (Western Ontario Rotator Cuff)

      Rationale

      In the field of arthroscopic rotator cuff repair (ARCR), clinicians base their recommendation for surgery on multiple factors including the patient's potential for shoulder function improvement. A Swiss multicenter ARCR cohort was implemented to develop and validate clinical prediction models for key postoperative outcomes including shoulder function improvement
      • Audige L.
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      • Aghlmandi S.
      • Stojanov T.
      • Schwappach D.
      • Hunziker S.
      • et al.
      Swiss-wide multicentre evaluation and prediction of core outcomes in arthroscopic rotator cuff repair: protocol for the ARCR_Pred cohort study.
      , which ultimately support an evidence-based decision-making process. However, the development and validation of such clinical prediction models require a cautious research strategy
      • Hemingway H.
      • Croft P.
      • Perel P.
      • Hayden J.A.
      • Abrams K.
      • Timmis A.
      • et al.
      Prognosis research strategy (PROGRESS) 1: a framework for researching clinical outcomes.
      , that begins with the identification of factors specifying the clinical prediction models and relies on both expert assessment and literature review

      Riley RD, van der Windt D, Croft P, Moons KG. Ten principles to strengthen prognosis research. In: Riley RD, van der Windt D, Croft P, Moons KG, editors. Prognosis research in healthcare: concepts, methods, and impact: Oxford University Press; 2019. p. 69-84. (ISBN No. 0192516655)

      . Attempts were already made to identify potential prognostic factors for shoulder function improvement after ARCR, yet the interpretation was limited by low quality underlying evidence
      • Fermont A.J.
      • Wolterbeek N.
      • Wessel R.N.
      • Baeyens J.P.
      • de Bie R.A.
      Prognostic factors for successful recovery after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair: a systematic literature review.
      ,
      • Khair M.M.
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      • Gulotta L.V.
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      ,
      • Lambers Heerspink F.O.
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      Specific patient-related prognostic factors for rotator cuff repair: a systematic review.
      ,
      • McElvany M.D.
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      • Matsen 3rd, F.A.
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      ,
      • Muller A.M.
      • Flury M.
      • Alsayed H.N.
      • Audige L.
      Influence of patient and diagnostic parameters on reported retear rates after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair.
      ,
      • Raman J.
      • Walton D.
      • MacDermid J.C.
      • Athwal G.S.
      Predictors of outcomes after rotator cuff repair-A meta-analysis.
      ,
      • Saccomanno M.F.
      • Sircana G.
      • Cazzato G.
      • Donati F.
      • Randelli P.
      • Milano G.
      Prognostic factors influencing the outcome of rotator cuff repair: a systematic review.
      . To complement these initial efforts and to account for the increasing number of recently published articles in the field, a state-of-the-art systematic review of the latest literature was needed. Thus, we aimed to comprehensively identify, map, and evaluate potential prognostic factors for the improvement of shoulder function in patients undergoing ARCR.

      Methods

      The present review was written according to the updated preferred reporting items for systematic review and meta-analysis (PRISMA) guidelines
      • Page M.J.
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      • Bossuyt P.M.
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      • et al.
      The PRISMA 2020 statement: an updated guideline for reporting systematic reviews.
      . The protocol was registered in PROSPERO on August 24, 2020 (registration number: CRD42020199257). Detailed methods were described elsewhere
      • Stojanov T.
      • Modler L.
      • Muller A.M.
      • Aghlmandi S.
      • Appenzeller-Herzog C.
      • Loucas R.
      • et al.
      Prognostic factors for the occurrence of post-operative shoulder stiffness after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair: a systematic review.
      .
      Briefly, longitudinal primary studies of adult patients who underwent primary ARCR that reported on multivariable factor analyses for shoulder function improvement with an endpoint assessment of at least 6 months were included. Shoulder function outcomes were classified as objective outcomes (including muscle strength and range of motion parameters), or patient-reported outcome measures (PROM) (including all the patient-reported shoulder function scales, such as the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES)
      • Michener L.A.
      • McClure P.W.
      • Sennett B.J.
      American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons Standardized Shoulder Assessment Form, patient self-report section: reliability, validity, and responsiveness.
      scale, the Constant-Murley
      • Conboy V.B.
      • Morris R.W.
      • Kiss J.
      • Carr A.J.
      An evaluation of the Constant-Murley shoulder assessment.
      score, the Simple Shoulder Test

      Lippitt S. A practical tool for evaluating shoulder function. The Simple Shoulder Test. In: Surgeons AAoO, editor. The shoulder; A balance of mobility and stability1993. p. 501-518. (ISBN No. 0892030917, 9780892030910)

      (SST), University of California Los Angeles (UCLA)
      • Amstutz H.C.
      • Sew Hoy A.L.
      • Clarke I.C.
      UCLA anatomic total shoulder arthroplasty.
      shoulder score, the Western Ontario Rotator Cuff (WORC)
      • Holtby R.
      • Razmjou H.
      Measurement properties of the Western Ontario rotator cuff outcome measure: a preliminary report.
      score and its short version (short WORC)
      • Dewan N.
      • MacDermid J.C.
      • MacIntyre N.
      Validity and Responsiveness of the Short Version of the Western Ontario Rotator Cuff Index (Short-WORC) in Patients With Rotator Cuff Repair.
      , the Oxford Shoulder Score
      • Dawson J.
      • Rogers K.
      • Fitzpatrick R.
      • Carr A.
      The Oxford shoulder score revisited.
      , the Japanese Orthopedic Association or the visual analog scale (VAS) for shoulder pain).
      A systematic search was run in EMBASE (Elsevier), Medline (Ovid), and Scopus for articles published between 2014 and June 9, 2021 (see Supplemental File 1). Search results were limited to 2014 and onwards, since surgical rotator cuff repairs substantially evolved in 2013/2014
      • Denard P.J.
      • Burkhart S.S.
      The evolution of suture anchors in arthroscopic rotator cuff repair.
      . To complement the results of database searching, we implemented a screening of all the included references as well as the citing articles of those indexed in Scopus or the Web of Science (June 10, 2021). The bibliographic references of identified topical systematic reviews and research articles were also screened as an additional source.
      Two screening phases based on titles and abstracts and full-texts, respectively, were performed independently by two authors (TS, LM) and involved the judgment of a senior author (LA), when necessary. Data extraction and risk of bias assessment using the Quality in Prognosis Study (QUIPS) tool
      • Hayden J.A.
      • van der Windt D.A.
      • Cartwright J.L.
      • Cote P.
      • Bombardier C.
      Assessing bias in studies of prognostic factors.
      were performed independently by pairs of two authors (TS, LM, ML, and RL). Data extraction items were based on an adaptation of the Checklist for Critical Appraisal and data extraction for systematic reviews of prediction modeling studies for prognostic factors (CHARMS-PF) (see Supplemental File 2)
      • Moons K.G.
      • de Groot J.A.
      • Bouwmeester W.
      • Vergouwe Y.
      • Mallett S.
      • Altman D.G.
      • et al.
      Critical appraisal and data extraction for systematic reviews of prediction modelling studies: the CHARMS checklist.
      .
      Effect estimates were reported as described in individual studies. The quality of the synthesized evidence was graded according to an adaptation of the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluations framework applied to prognostic factors findings
      • Huguet A.
      • Hayden J.A.
      • Stinson J.
      • McGrath P.J.
      • Chambers C.T.
      • Tougas M.E.
      • et al.
      Judging the quality of evidence in reviews of prognostic factor research: adapting the GRADE framework.
      . Potential prognostic factors were then narratively synthesized in the Results section when the quality of the evidence was “Low”. We raised the quality assessment of the synthesized evidence when 50% or more of the studies reported the same direction for an association between a given factor and its outcome.
      Based on this quality assessment, factors were then categorized into Patient-related, Disease-related and Procedure-related factors with potential prognostic value or as requiring further analyses.

      Results

      We screened the titles and abstracts of 6790 records and assessed 632 full-text articles for eligibility (Figure 1). We finally included 24 studies
      • Basat H.C.
      • Armangil M.
      • Yogun Y.
      Effect of affective temperament on outcome of rotator cuff surgery.
      ,
      • Beck E.C.
      • Gowd A.K.
      • Liu J.N.
      • Waterman B.R.
      • Nicholson K.F.
      • Forsythe B.
      • et al.
      How Is Maximum Outcome Improvement Defined in Patients Undergoing Shoulder Arthroscopy for Rotator Cuff Repair? A 1-Year Follow-Up Study.
      ,
      • Chalmers P.N.
      • Granger E.
      • Nelson R.
      • Yoo M.
      • Tashjian R.Z.
      Factors Affecting Cost, Outcomes, and Tendon Healing After Arthroscopic Rotator Cuff Repair.
      ,
      • Cvetanovich G.L.
      • Gowd A.K.
      • Liu J.N.
      • Nwachukwu B.U.
      • Cabarcas B.C.
      • Cole B.J.
      • et al.
      Establishing clinically significant outcome after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair.
      ,
      • Dierckman B.D.
      • Ni J.J.
      • Karzel R.P.
      • Getelman M.H.
      Excellent healing rates and patient satisfaction after arthroscopic repair of medium to large rotator cuff tears with a single-row technique augmented with bone marrow vents.
      • Donohue N.K.
      • Nickel B.T.
      • Grindel S.I.
      High-Grade Articular, Bursal, and Intratendinous Partial-Thickness Rotator Cuff Tears: A Retrospective Study Comparing Functional Outcomes After Completion and Repair.
      • Donohue N.K.
      • Prisco A.R.
      • Grindel S.I.
      Pre-operative corticosteroid injections improve functional outcomes in patients undergoing arthroscopic repair of high-grade partial-thickness rotator cuff tears.
      • Dwyer T.
      • Razmjou H.
      • Holtby R.
      Full-thickness rotator cuff tears in patients younger than 55 years: clinical outcome of arthroscopic repair in comparison with older patients.
      ,
      • Fermont A.J.
      • Wolterbeek N.
      • Wessel R.N.
      • Baeyens J.P.
      • de Bie R.A.
      Prognostic factors for recovery after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair: a prognostic study.
      ,
      • Gutman M.J.
      • Joyce C.D.
      • Patel M.S.
      • Kirsch J.M.
      • Gutman B.S.
      • Abboud J.A.
      • et al.
      Early repair of traumatic rotator cuff tears improves functional outcomes.
      ,
      • Haviv B.
      • Rutenberg T.F.
      • Yaari L.
      • Khatib M.
      • Rath E.
      • Yassin M.
      Which patients are less likely to improve after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair?.
      ,
      • Kim C.W.
      • Kim J.H.
      • Kim D.G.
      The factors affecting pain pattern after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair.
      ,
      • Kim D.M.
      • Kim T.H.
      • Kholinne E.
      • Park J.H.
      • Shin M.J.
      • Kim H.
      • et al.
      Minimal Clinically Important Difference, Substantial Clinical Benefit, and Patient Acceptable Symptomatic State After Arthroscopic Rotator Cuff Repair.
      ,
      • Malavolta E.A.
      • Yamamoto G.J.
      • Bussius D.T.
      • Assuncao J.H.
      • Andrade-Silva F.B.
      • Gracitelli M.E.C.
      • et al.
      Establishing minimal clinically important difference for the UCLA and ASES scores after rotator cuff repair.
      ,
      • Naimark M.
      • Trinh T.
      • Robbins C.
      • Rodoni B.
      • Carpenter J.
      • Bedi A.
      • et al.
      Effect of Muscle Quality on Operative and Nonoperative Treatment of Rotator Cuff Tears.
      ,
      • Nakamura Y.
      • Gotoh M.
      • Mitsui Y.
      • Nakamura H.
      • Ohzono H.
      • Okawa T.
      • et al.
      Prognostic factors affecting clinical outcomes after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair: importance of functional recovery by 3 months after surgery.
      ,
      • Ohzono H.
      • Gotoh M.
      • Nakamura H.
      • Honda H.
      • Mitsui Y.
      • Kakuma T.
      • et al.
      Effect of Preoperative Fatty Degeneration of the Rotator Cuff Muscles on the Clinical Outcome of Patients With Intact Tendons After Arthroscopic Rotator Cuff Repair of Large/Massive Cuff Tears.
      ,
      • Pecora J.O.
      • Malavolta E.A.
      • Assuncao J.H.
      • Gracitelli M.E.
      • Martins J.P.
      • Ferreira Jr., A.A.
      Prognostic factors for clinical outcomes after rotator cuff repair.
      ,
      • Potter M.Q.
      • Wylie J.D.
      • Granger E.K.
      • Greis P.E.
      • Burks R.T.
      • Tashjian R.Z.
      One-year Patient-reported Outcomes After Arthroscopic Rotator Cuff Repair Do Not Correlate With Mild to Moderate Psychological Distress.
      ,
      • Robinson H.A.
      • Lam P.H.
      • Walton J.R.
      • Murrell G.A.C.
      The effect of rotator cuff repair on early overhead shoulder function: a study in 1600 consecutive rotator cuff repairs.
      ,
      • Sun Y.
      • Lin J.
      • Luo Z.
      • Chen J.
      Preoperative Lymphocyte to Monocyte Ratio Can Be a Prognostic Factor in Arthroscopic Repair of Small to Large Rotator Cuff Tears.
      ,
      • Tan M.
      • Lam P.H.
      • Le B.T.
      • Murrell G.A.
      Trauma versus no trauma: an analysis of the effect of tear mechanism on tendon healing in 1300 consecutive patients after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair.
      ,
      • Tashjian R.Z.
      • Shin J.
      • Broschinsky K.
      • Yeh C.C.
      • Martin B.
      • Chalmers P.N.
      • et al.
      Minimal clinically important differences in the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons, Simple Shoulder Test, and visual analog scale pain scores after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair.
      ,
      • Watson S.
      • Allen B.
      • Robbins C.
      • Bedi A.
      • Gagnier J.J.
      • Miller B.
      Does the Rotator Cuff Tear Pattern Influence Clinical Outcomes After Surgical Repair?.
      representing 5830 patients. We excluded two recent studies including patients with revision repairs or non-operative treatment
      • Bush C.
      • Gagnier J.J.
      • Carpenter J.
      • Bedi A.
      • Miller B.
      Predictors of clinical outcomes after non-operative management of symptomatic full-thickness rotator cuff tears.
      ,
      • Frangiamore S.
      • Dornan G.J.
      • Horan M.P.
      • Mannava S.
      • Fritz E.M.
      • Hussain Z.B.
      • et al.
      Predictive Modeling to Determine Functional Outcomes After Arthroscopic Rotator Cuff Repair.
      . Screening of the titles and abstracts of cited and citing references of included records and 18 topical records
      • Chen Y.
      • Li H.
      • Qiao Y.
      • Ge Y.
      • Li Y.
      • Hua Y.
      • et al.
      Double-row rotator cuff repairs lead to more intensive pain during the early postoperative period but have a lower risk of residual pain than single-row repairs.
      • Cho C.H.
      • Bae K.C.
      • Kim D.H.
      Patients who have undergone rotator cuff repair experience around 75% functional recovery at 6 months after surgery.
      • Choi S.
      • Kim M.K.
      • Kim G.M.
      • Roh Y.H.
      • Hwang I.K.
      • Kang H.
      Factors associated with clinical and structural outcomes after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair with a suture bridge technique in medium, large, and massive tears.
      ,
      • Deniz G.
      • Kose O.
      • Tugay A.
      • Guler F.
      • Turan A.
      Fatty degeneration and atrophy of the rotator cuff muscles after arthroscopic repair: does it improve, halt or deteriorate?.
      ,
      • Forsythe B.
      • Agarwalla A.
      • Puzzitiello R.N.
      • Patel B.H.
      • Lu Y.
      • Verma N.N.
      • et al.
      Clinical Function Improves After Subacromial Injection of Local Anesthetic in Full-Thickness Rotator Cuff Tears: A Randomized Control Trial.
      ,
      • Frangiamore S.
      • Dornan G.J.
      • Horan M.P.
      • Mannava S.
      • Fritz E.M.
      • Hussain Z.B.
      • et al.
      Predictive Modeling to Determine Functional Outcomes After Arthroscopic Rotator Cuff Repair.
      ,
      • Gwark J.Y.
      • Sung C.M.
      • Na J.B.
      • Park H.B.
      Outcomes of Arthroscopic Rotator Cuff Repair in Patients Who Are 70 Years of Age or Older Versus Under 70 Years of Age: A Sex- and Tear Size-Matched Case-Control Study.
      ,
      • Herring M.J.
      • White M.
      • Braman J.P.
      The WORC Index and Predicting Treatment Failure in Patients Undergoing Primary Arthroscopic Rotator Cuff Repair.
      ,
      • Kijowski R.
      • Thurlow P.
      • Blankenbaker D.
      • Liu F.
      • McGuine T.
      • Li G.
      • et al.
      Preoperative MRI Shoulder Findings Associated with Clinical Outcome 1 Year after Rotator Cuff Repair.
      ,
      • Lansdown D.A.
      • Morrison C.
      • Zaid M.B.
      • Patel R.
      • Zhang A.L.
      • Allen C.R.
      • et al.
      Preoperative IDEAL (Iterative Decomposition of Echoes of Asymmetrical Length) magnetic resonance imaging rotator cuff muscle fat fractions are associated with rotator cuff repair outcomes.
      ,
      • Liu X.N.
      • Yang C.J.
      • Lee G.W.
      • Kim S.H.
      • Yoon Y.H.
      • Noh K.C.
      Functional and Radiographic Outcomes After Arthroscopic Transosseous Suture Repair of Medium Sized Rotator Cuff Tears.
      ,
      • Potter M.Q.
      • Wylie J.D.
      • Greis P.E.
      • Burks R.T.
      • Tashjian R.Z.
      Psychological distress negatively affects self-assessment of shoulder function in patients with rotator cuff tears.
      ,
      • Razmjou H.
      • ElMaraghy A.
      • Dwyer T.
      • Fournier-Gosselin S.
      • Devereaux M.
      • Holtby R.
      Outcome of distal clavicle resection in patients with acromioclavicular joint osteoarthritis and full-thickness rotator cuff tear.
      ,
      • Rizvi S.M.T.
      • Lam P.
      • Murrell G.A.C.
      Repair Integrity in Patients Returning for an Unscheduled Visit After Arthroscopic Rotator Cuff Repair: Retorn or Not?.
      ,
      • Watson S.T.
      • Robbins C.B.
      • Bedi A.
      • Carpenter J.E.
      • Gagnier J.J.
      • Miller B.S.
      Comparison of Outcomes 1 Year After Rotator Cuff Repair With and Without Concomitant Biceps Surgery.
      • Woollard J.D.
      • Bost J.E.
      • Piva S.R.
      • Kelley Fitzgerald G.
      • Rodosky M.W.
      • Irrgang J.J.
      The ability of preoperative factors to predict patient-reported disability following surgery for rotator cuff pathology.
      • Wylie J.D.
      • Baran S.
      • Granger E.K.
      • Tashjian R.Z.
      A Comprehensive Evaluation of Factors Affecting Healing, Range of Motion, Strength, and Patient-Reported Outcomes After Arthroscopic Rotator Cuff Repair.
      • Yeo D.Y.
      • Walton J.R.
      • Lam P.
      • Murrell G.A.
      The Relationship Between Intraoperative Tear Dimensions and Postoperative Pain in 1624 Consecutive Arthroscopic Rotator Cuff Repairs.
      did not yield any additional studies that met our inclusion criteria. A full description of included studies (studied population, outcomes, statistical analyses, and reported effect estimates) is available in Supplemental Table 1, Supplemental Table 2 and Supplemental Table 3.
      Figure thumbnail gr1
      Figure 1PRISMA 2020 flow diagram for new systematic reviews which included search of databases, register and other sources

      Study characteristics

      Among the included studies, eleven (46%) were conducted in the United States of America
      • Beck E.C.
      • Gowd A.K.
      • Liu J.N.
      • Waterman B.R.
      • Nicholson K.F.
      • Forsythe B.
      • et al.
      How Is Maximum Outcome Improvement Defined in Patients Undergoing Shoulder Arthroscopy for Rotator Cuff Repair? A 1-Year Follow-Up Study.
      ,
      • Chalmers P.N.
      • Granger E.
      • Nelson R.
      • Yoo M.
      • Tashjian R.Z.
      Factors Affecting Cost, Outcomes, and Tendon Healing After Arthroscopic Rotator Cuff Repair.
      ,
      • Cvetanovich G.L.
      • Gowd A.K.
      • Liu J.N.
      • Nwachukwu B.U.
      • Cabarcas B.C.
      • Cole B.J.
      • et al.
      Establishing clinically significant outcome after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair.
      ,
      • Dierckman B.D.
      • Ni J.J.
      • Karzel R.P.
      • Getelman M.H.
      Excellent healing rates and patient satisfaction after arthroscopic repair of medium to large rotator cuff tears with a single-row technique augmented with bone marrow vents.
      • Donohue N.K.
      • Nickel B.T.
      • Grindel S.I.
      High-Grade Articular, Bursal, and Intratendinous Partial-Thickness Rotator Cuff Tears: A Retrospective Study Comparing Functional Outcomes After Completion and Repair.
      • Donohue N.K.
      • Prisco A.R.
      • Grindel S.I.
      Pre-operative corticosteroid injections improve functional outcomes in patients undergoing arthroscopic repair of high-grade partial-thickness rotator cuff tears.
      ,
      • Gutman M.J.
      • Joyce C.D.
      • Patel M.S.
      • Kirsch J.M.
      • Gutman B.S.
      • Abboud J.A.
      • et al.
      Early repair of traumatic rotator cuff tears improves functional outcomes.
      ,
      • Naimark M.
      • Trinh T.
      • Robbins C.
      • Rodoni B.
      • Carpenter J.
      • Bedi A.
      • et al.
      Effect of Muscle Quality on Operative and Nonoperative Treatment of Rotator Cuff Tears.
      ,
      • Potter M.Q.
      • Wylie J.D.
      • Granger E.K.
      • Greis P.E.
      • Burks R.T.
      • Tashjian R.Z.
      One-year Patient-reported Outcomes After Arthroscopic Rotator Cuff Repair Do Not Correlate With Mild to Moderate Psychological Distress.
      ,
      • Tashjian R.Z.
      • Shin J.
      • Broschinsky K.
      • Yeh C.C.
      • Martin B.
      • Chalmers P.N.
      • et al.
      Minimal clinically important differences in the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons, Simple Shoulder Test, and visual analog scale pain scores after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair.
      ,
      • Watson S.
      • Allen B.
      • Robbins C.
      • Bedi A.
      • Gagnier J.J.
      • Miller B.
      Does the Rotator Cuff Tear Pattern Influence Clinical Outcomes After Surgical Repair?.
      , and one (4%) in Europe
      • Fermont A.J.
      • Wolterbeek N.
      • Wessel R.N.
      • Baeyens J.P.
      • de Bie R.A.
      Prognostic factors for recovery after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair: a prognostic study.
      . Patient sample sizes ranged from 30 22 to 1600 61 (Table 1). Only one-fourth were prospective studies
      • Fermont A.J.
      • Wolterbeek N.
      • Wessel R.N.
      • Baeyens J.P.
      • de Bie R.A.
      Prognostic factors for recovery after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair: a prognostic study.
      ,
      • Kim D.M.
      • Kim T.H.
      • Kholinne E.
      • Park J.H.
      • Shin M.J.
      • Kim H.
      • et al.
      Minimal Clinically Important Difference, Substantial Clinical Benefit, and Patient Acceptable Symptomatic State After Arthroscopic Rotator Cuff Repair.
      ,
      • Naimark M.
      • Trinh T.
      • Robbins C.
      • Rodoni B.
      • Carpenter J.
      • Bedi A.
      • et al.
      Effect of Muscle Quality on Operative and Nonoperative Treatment of Rotator Cuff Tears.
      ,
      • Potter M.Q.
      • Wylie J.D.
      • Granger E.K.
      • Greis P.E.
      • Burks R.T.
      • Tashjian R.Z.
      One-year Patient-reported Outcomes After Arthroscopic Rotator Cuff Repair Do Not Correlate With Mild to Moderate Psychological Distress.
      ,
      • Sun Y.
      • Lin J.
      • Luo Z.
      • Chen J.
      Preoperative Lymphocyte to Monocyte Ratio Can Be a Prognostic Factor in Arthroscopic Repair of Small to Large Rotator Cuff Tears.
      ,
      • Watson S.
      • Allen B.
      • Robbins C.
      • Bedi A.
      • Gagnier J.J.
      • Miller B.
      Does the Rotator Cuff Tear Pattern Influence Clinical Outcomes After Surgical Repair?.
      .
      Table 1Synthesized study characteristics
      Included studies (N = 24)No. (%)Associated references
      Sample size
      1 – 10013 (54)
      • Chalmers P.N.
      • Granger E.
      • Nelson R.
      • Yoo M.
      • Tashjian R.Z.
      Factors Affecting Cost, Outcomes, and Tendon Healing After Arthroscopic Rotator Cuff Repair.
      ,
      • Dierckman B.D.
      • Ni J.J.
      • Karzel R.P.
      • Getelman M.H.
      Excellent healing rates and patient satisfaction after arthroscopic repair of medium to large rotator cuff tears with a single-row technique augmented with bone marrow vents.
      ,
      • Donohue N.K.
      • Nickel B.T.
      • Grindel S.I.
      High-Grade Articular, Bursal, and Intratendinous Partial-Thickness Rotator Cuff Tears: A Retrospective Study Comparing Functional Outcomes After Completion and Repair.
      ,
      • Fermont A.J.
      • Wolterbeek N.
      • Wessel R.N.
      • Baeyens J.P.
      • de Bie R.A.
      Prognostic factors for recovery after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair: a prognostic study.
      ,
      • Haviv B.
      • Rutenberg T.F.
      • Yaari L.
      • Khatib M.
      • Rath E.
      • Yassin M.
      Which patients are less likely to improve after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair?.
      ,
      • Kim C.W.
      • Kim J.H.
      • Kim D.G.
      The factors affecting pain pattern after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair.
      ,
      • Kim D.M.
      • Kim T.H.
      • Kholinne E.
      • Park J.H.
      • Shin M.J.
      • Kim H.
      • et al.
      Minimal Clinically Important Difference, Substantial Clinical Benefit, and Patient Acceptable Symptomatic State After Arthroscopic Rotator Cuff Repair.
      ,
      • Naimark M.
      • Trinh T.
      • Robbins C.
      • Rodoni B.
      • Carpenter J.
      • Bedi A.
      • et al.
      Effect of Muscle Quality on Operative and Nonoperative Treatment of Rotator Cuff Tears.
      ,
      • Nakamura Y.
      • Gotoh M.
      • Mitsui Y.
      • Nakamura H.
      • Ohzono H.
      • Okawa T.
      • et al.
      Prognostic factors affecting clinical outcomes after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair: importance of functional recovery by 3 months after surgery.
      ,
      • Ohzono H.
      • Gotoh M.
      • Nakamura H.
      • Honda H.
      • Mitsui Y.
      • Kakuma T.
      • et al.
      Effect of Preoperative Fatty Degeneration of the Rotator Cuff Muscles on the Clinical Outcome of Patients With Intact Tendons After Arthroscopic Rotator Cuff Repair of Large/Massive Cuff Tears.
      ,
      • Potter M.Q.
      • Wylie J.D.
      • Granger E.K.
      • Greis P.E.
      • Burks R.T.
      • Tashjian R.Z.
      One-year Patient-reported Outcomes After Arthroscopic Rotator Cuff Repair Do Not Correlate With Mild to Moderate Psychological Distress.
      ,
      • Sun Y.
      • Lin J.
      • Luo Z.
      • Chen J.
      Preoperative Lymphocyte to Monocyte Ratio Can Be a Prognostic Factor in Arthroscopic Repair of Small to Large Rotator Cuff Tears.
      ,
      • Watson S.
      • Allen B.
      • Robbins C.
      • Bedi A.
      • Gagnier J.J.
      • Miller B.
      Does the Rotator Cuff Tear Pattern Influence Clinical Outcomes After Surgical Repair?.
      101 – 3008 (33)
      • Basat H.C.
      • Armangil M.
      • Yogun Y.
      Effect of affective temperament on outcome of rotator cuff surgery.
      ,
      • Beck E.C.
      • Gowd A.K.
      • Liu J.N.
      • Waterman B.R.
      • Nicholson K.F.
      • Forsythe B.
      • et al.
      How Is Maximum Outcome Improvement Defined in Patients Undergoing Shoulder Arthroscopy for Rotator Cuff Repair? A 1-Year Follow-Up Study.
      ,
      • Cvetanovich G.L.
      • Gowd A.K.
      • Liu J.N.
      • Nwachukwu B.U.
      • Cabarcas B.C.
      • Cole B.J.
      • et al.
      Establishing clinically significant outcome after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair.
      ,
      • Donohue N.K.
      • Prisco A.R.
      • Grindel S.I.
      Pre-operative corticosteroid injections improve functional outcomes in patients undergoing arthroscopic repair of high-grade partial-thickness rotator cuff tears.
      ,
      • Gutman M.J.
      • Joyce C.D.
      • Patel M.S.
      • Kirsch J.M.
      • Gutman B.S.
      • Abboud J.A.
      • et al.
      Early repair of traumatic rotator cuff tears improves functional outcomes.
      ,
      • Malavolta E.A.
      • Yamamoto G.J.
      • Bussius D.T.
      • Assuncao J.H.
      • Andrade-Silva F.B.
      • Gracitelli M.E.C.
      • et al.
      Establishing minimal clinically important difference for the UCLA and ASES scores after rotator cuff repair.
      ,
      • Pecora J.O.
      • Malavolta E.A.
      • Assuncao J.H.
      • Gracitelli M.E.
      • Martins J.P.
      • Ferreira Jr., A.A.
      Prognostic factors for clinical outcomes after rotator cuff repair.
      ,
      • Tashjian R.Z.
      • Shin J.
      • Broschinsky K.
      • Yeh C.C.
      • Martin B.
      • Chalmers P.N.
      • et al.
      Minimal clinically important differences in the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons, Simple Shoulder Test, and visual analog scale pain scores after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair.
      301 – 10001 (4)
      • Dwyer T.
      • Razmjou H.
      • Holtby R.
      Full-thickness rotator cuff tears in patients younger than 55 years: clinical outcome of arthroscopic repair in comparison with older patients.
      1001+2 (8)
      • Robinson H.A.
      • Lam P.H.
      • Walton J.R.
      • Murrell G.A.C.
      The effect of rotator cuff repair on early overhead shoulder function: a study in 1600 consecutive rotator cuff repairs.
      ,
      • Tan M.
      • Lam P.H.
      • Le B.T.
      • Murrell G.A.
      Trauma versus no trauma: an analysis of the effect of tear mechanism on tendon healing in 1300 consecutive patients after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair.
      Prospective study (vs. retrospective)6 (25)
      • Fermont A.J.
      • Wolterbeek N.
      • Wessel R.N.
      • Baeyens J.P.
      • de Bie R.A.
      Prognostic factors for recovery after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair: a prognostic study.
      ,
      • Kim D.M.
      • Kim T.H.
      • Kholinne E.
      • Park J.H.
      • Shin M.J.
      • Kim H.
      • et al.
      Minimal Clinically Important Difference, Substantial Clinical Benefit, and Patient Acceptable Symptomatic State After Arthroscopic Rotator Cuff Repair.
      ,
      • Naimark M.
      • Trinh T.
      • Robbins C.
      • Rodoni B.
      • Carpenter J.
      • Bedi A.
      • et al.
      Effect of Muscle Quality on Operative and Nonoperative Treatment of Rotator Cuff Tears.
      ,
      • Potter M.Q.
      • Wylie J.D.
      • Granger E.K.
      • Greis P.E.
      • Burks R.T.
      • Tashjian R.Z.
      One-year Patient-reported Outcomes After Arthroscopic Rotator Cuff Repair Do Not Correlate With Mild to Moderate Psychological Distress.
      ,
      • Sun Y.
      • Lin J.
      • Luo Z.
      • Chen J.
      Preoperative Lymphocyte to Monocyte Ratio Can Be a Prognostic Factor in Arthroscopic Repair of Small to Large Rotator Cuff Tears.
      ,
      • Watson S.
      • Allen B.
      • Robbins C.
      • Bedi A.
      • Gagnier J.J.
      • Miller B.
      Does the Rotator Cuff Tear Pattern Influence Clinical Outcomes After Surgical Repair?.
      Types of tears included
      All17 (71)
      • Basat H.C.
      • Armangil M.
      • Yogun Y.
      Effect of affective temperament on outcome of rotator cuff surgery.
      ,
      • Beck E.C.
      • Gowd A.K.
      • Liu J.N.
      • Waterman B.R.
      • Nicholson K.F.
      • Forsythe B.
      • et al.
      How Is Maximum Outcome Improvement Defined in Patients Undergoing Shoulder Arthroscopy for Rotator Cuff Repair? A 1-Year Follow-Up Study.
      ,
      • Chalmers P.N.
      • Granger E.
      • Nelson R.
      • Yoo M.
      • Tashjian R.Z.
      Factors Affecting Cost, Outcomes, and Tendon Healing After Arthroscopic Rotator Cuff Repair.
      ,
      • Cvetanovich G.L.
      • Gowd A.K.
      • Liu J.N.
      • Nwachukwu B.U.
      • Cabarcas B.C.
      • Cole B.J.
      • et al.
      Establishing clinically significant outcome after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair.
      ,
      • Fermont A.J.
      • Wolterbeek N.
      • Wessel R.N.
      • Baeyens J.P.
      • de Bie R.A.
      Prognostic factors for recovery after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair: a prognostic study.
      ,
      • Haviv B.
      • Rutenberg T.F.
      • Yaari L.
      • Khatib M.
      • Rath E.
      • Yassin M.
      Which patients are less likely to improve after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair?.
      ,
      • Kim D.M.
      • Kim T.H.
      • Kholinne E.
      • Park J.H.
      • Shin M.J.
      • Kim H.
      • et al.
      Minimal Clinically Important Difference, Substantial Clinical Benefit, and Patient Acceptable Symptomatic State After Arthroscopic Rotator Cuff Repair.
      ,
      • Malavolta E.A.
      • Yamamoto G.J.
      • Bussius D.T.
      • Assuncao J.H.
      • Andrade-Silva F.B.
      • Gracitelli M.E.C.
      • et al.
      Establishing minimal clinically important difference for the UCLA and ASES scores after rotator cuff repair.
      ,
      • Naimark M.
      • Trinh T.
      • Robbins C.
      • Rodoni B.
      • Carpenter J.
      • Bedi A.
      • et al.
      Effect of Muscle Quality on Operative and Nonoperative Treatment of Rotator Cuff Tears.
      ,
      • Nakamura Y.
      • Gotoh M.
      • Mitsui Y.
      • Nakamura H.
      • Ohzono H.
      • Okawa T.
      • et al.
      Prognostic factors affecting clinical outcomes after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair: importance of functional recovery by 3 months after surgery.
      ,
      • Ohzono H.
      • Gotoh M.
      • Nakamura H.
      • Honda H.
      • Mitsui Y.
      • Kakuma T.
      • et al.
      Effect of Preoperative Fatty Degeneration of the Rotator Cuff Muscles on the Clinical Outcome of Patients With Intact Tendons After Arthroscopic Rotator Cuff Repair of Large/Massive Cuff Tears.
      ,
      • Pecora J.O.
      • Malavolta E.A.
      • Assuncao J.H.
      • Gracitelli M.E.
      • Martins J.P.
      • Ferreira Jr., A.A.
      Prognostic factors for clinical outcomes after rotator cuff repair.
      ,
      • Potter M.Q.
      • Wylie J.D.
      • Granger E.K.
      • Greis P.E.
      • Burks R.T.
      • Tashjian R.Z.
      One-year Patient-reported Outcomes After Arthroscopic Rotator Cuff Repair Do Not Correlate With Mild to Moderate Psychological Distress.
      ,
      • Robinson H.A.
      • Lam P.H.
      • Walton J.R.
      • Murrell G.A.C.
      The effect of rotator cuff repair on early overhead shoulder function: a study in 1600 consecutive rotator cuff repairs.
      ,
      • Sun Y.
      • Lin J.
      • Luo Z.
      • Chen J.
      Preoperative Lymphocyte to Monocyte Ratio Can Be a Prognostic Factor in Arthroscopic Repair of Small to Large Rotator Cuff Tears.
      ,
      • Tashjian R.Z.
      • Shin J.
      • Broschinsky K.
      • Yeh C.C.
      • Martin B.
      • Chalmers P.N.
      • et al.
      Minimal clinically important differences in the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons, Simple Shoulder Test, and visual analog scale pain scores after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair.
      Supraspinatus and/or infraspinatus only4 (17)
      • Dierckman B.D.
      • Ni J.J.
      • Karzel R.P.
      • Getelman M.H.
      Excellent healing rates and patient satisfaction after arthroscopic repair of medium to large rotator cuff tears with a single-row technique augmented with bone marrow vents.
      ,
      • Dwyer T.
      • Razmjou H.
      • Holtby R.
      Full-thickness rotator cuff tears in patients younger than 55 years: clinical outcome of arthroscopic repair in comparison with older patients.
      ,
      • Kim C.W.
      • Kim J.H.
      • Kim D.G.
      The factors affecting pain pattern after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair.
      ,
      • Watson S.
      • Allen B.
      • Robbins C.
      • Bedi A.
      • Gagnier J.J.
      • Miller B.
      Does the Rotator Cuff Tear Pattern Influence Clinical Outcomes After Surgical Repair?.
      Supraspinatus only3 (12)
      • Donohue N.K.
      • Nickel B.T.
      • Grindel S.I.
      High-Grade Articular, Bursal, and Intratendinous Partial-Thickness Rotator Cuff Tears: A Retrospective Study Comparing Functional Outcomes After Completion and Repair.
      ,
      • Donohue N.K.
      • Prisco A.R.
      • Grindel S.I.
      Pre-operative corticosteroid injections improve functional outcomes in patients undergoing arthroscopic repair of high-grade partial-thickness rotator cuff tears.
      ,
      • Tan M.
      • Lam P.H.
      • Le B.T.
      • Murrell G.A.
      Trauma versus no trauma: an analysis of the effect of tear mechanism on tendon healing in 1300 consecutive patients after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair.
      Etiology
      All22 (92)
      • Basat H.C.
      • Armangil M.
      • Yogun Y.
      Effect of affective temperament on outcome of rotator cuff surgery.
      ,
      • Beck E.C.
      • Gowd A.K.
      • Liu J.N.
      • Waterman B.R.
      • Nicholson K.F.
      • Forsythe B.
      • et al.
      How Is Maximum Outcome Improvement Defined in Patients Undergoing Shoulder Arthroscopy for Rotator Cuff Repair? A 1-Year Follow-Up Study.
      ,
      • Chalmers P.N.
      • Granger E.
      • Nelson R.
      • Yoo M.
      • Tashjian R.Z.
      Factors Affecting Cost, Outcomes, and Tendon Healing After Arthroscopic Rotator Cuff Repair.
      ,
      • Cvetanovich G.L.
      • Gowd A.K.
      • Liu J.N.
      • Nwachukwu B.U.
      • Cabarcas B.C.
      • Cole B.J.
      • et al.
      Establishing clinically significant outcome after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair.
      ,
      • Dierckman B.D.
      • Ni J.J.
      • Karzel R.P.
      • Getelman M.H.
      Excellent healing rates and patient satisfaction after arthroscopic repair of medium to large rotator cuff tears with a single-row technique augmented with bone marrow vents.
      • Donohue N.K.
      • Nickel B.T.
      • Grindel S.I.
      High-Grade Articular, Bursal, and Intratendinous Partial-Thickness Rotator Cuff Tears: A Retrospective Study Comparing Functional Outcomes After Completion and Repair.
      • Donohue N.K.
      • Prisco A.R.
      • Grindel S.I.
      Pre-operative corticosteroid injections improve functional outcomes in patients undergoing arthroscopic repair of high-grade partial-thickness rotator cuff tears.
      • Dwyer T.
      • Razmjou H.
      • Holtby R.
      Full-thickness rotator cuff tears in patients younger than 55 years: clinical outcome of arthroscopic repair in comparison with older patients.
      ,
      • Fermont A.J.
      • Wolterbeek N.
      • Wessel R.N.
      • Baeyens J.P.
      • de Bie R.A.
      Prognostic factors for recovery after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair: a prognostic study.
      ,
      • Haviv B.
      • Rutenberg T.F.
      • Yaari L.
      • Khatib M.
      • Rath E.
      • Yassin M.
      Which patients are less likely to improve after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair?.
      ,
      • Kim C.W.
      • Kim J.H.
      • Kim D.G.
      The factors affecting pain pattern after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair.
      ,
      • Kim D.M.
      • Kim T.H.
      • Kholinne E.
      • Park J.H.
      • Shin M.J.
      • Kim H.
      • et al.
      Minimal Clinically Important Difference, Substantial Clinical Benefit, and Patient Acceptable Symptomatic State After Arthroscopic Rotator Cuff Repair.
      ,
      • Malavolta E.A.
      • Yamamoto G.J.
      • Bussius D.T.
      • Assuncao J.H.
      • Andrade-Silva F.B.
      • Gracitelli M.E.C.
      • et al.
      Establishing minimal clinically important difference for the UCLA and ASES scores after rotator cuff repair.
      ,
      • Nakamura Y.
      • Gotoh M.
      • Mitsui Y.
      • Nakamura H.
      • Ohzono H.
      • Okawa T.
      • et al.
      Prognostic factors affecting clinical outcomes after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair: importance of functional recovery by 3 months after surgery.
      ,
      • Ohzono H.
      • Gotoh M.
      • Nakamura H.
      • Honda H.
      • Mitsui Y.
      • Kakuma T.
      • et al.
      Effect of Preoperative Fatty Degeneration of the Rotator Cuff Muscles on the Clinical Outcome of Patients With Intact Tendons After Arthroscopic Rotator Cuff Repair of Large/Massive Cuff Tears.
      ,
      • Pecora J.O.
      • Malavolta E.A.
      • Assuncao J.H.
      • Gracitelli M.E.
      • Martins J.P.
      • Ferreira Jr., A.A.
      Prognostic factors for clinical outcomes after rotator cuff repair.
      ,
      • Potter M.Q.
      • Wylie J.D.
      • Granger E.K.
      • Greis P.E.
      • Burks R.T.
      • Tashjian R.Z.
      One-year Patient-reported Outcomes After Arthroscopic Rotator Cuff Repair Do Not Correlate With Mild to Moderate Psychological Distress.
      ,
      • Robinson H.A.
      • Lam P.H.
      • Walton J.R.
      • Murrell G.A.C.
      The effect of rotator cuff repair on early overhead shoulder function: a study in 1600 consecutive rotator cuff repairs.
      ,
      • Sun Y.
      • Lin J.
      • Luo Z.
      • Chen J.
      Preoperative Lymphocyte to Monocyte Ratio Can Be a Prognostic Factor in Arthroscopic Repair of Small to Large Rotator Cuff Tears.
      ,
      • Tan M.
      • Lam P.H.
      • Le B.T.
      • Murrell G.A.
      Trauma versus no trauma: an analysis of the effect of tear mechanism on tendon healing in 1300 consecutive patients after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair.
      ,
      • Tashjian R.Z.
      • Shin J.
      • Broschinsky K.
      • Yeh C.C.
      • Martin B.
      • Chalmers P.N.
      • et al.
      Minimal clinically important differences in the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons, Simple Shoulder Test, and visual analog scale pain scores after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair.
      ,
      • Watson S.
      • Allen B.
      • Robbins C.
      • Bedi A.
      • Gagnier J.J.
      • Miller B.
      Does the Rotator Cuff Tear Pattern Influence Clinical Outcomes After Surgical Repair?.
      Traumatic only1 (4)
      • Gutman M.J.
      • Joyce C.D.
      • Patel M.S.
      • Kirsch J.M.
      • Gutman B.S.
      • Abboud J.A.
      • et al.
      Early repair of traumatic rotator cuff tears improves functional outcomes.
      Degenerative only1 (4)
      • Naimark M.
      • Trinh T.
      • Robbins C.
      • Rodoni B.
      • Carpenter J.
      • Bedi A.
      • et al.
      Effect of Muscle Quality on Operative and Nonoperative Treatment of Rotator Cuff Tears.
      Partial / full-thickness tears
      All14 (58)
      • Chalmers P.N.
      • Granger E.
      • Nelson R.
      • Yoo M.
      • Tashjian R.Z.
      Factors Affecting Cost, Outcomes, and Tendon Healing After Arthroscopic Rotator Cuff Repair.
      ,
      • Cvetanovich G.L.
      • Gowd A.K.
      • Liu J.N.
      • Nwachukwu B.U.
      • Cabarcas B.C.
      • Cole B.J.
      • et al.
      Establishing clinically significant outcome after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair.
      ,
      • Dierckman B.D.
      • Ni J.J.
      • Karzel R.P.
      • Getelman M.H.
      Excellent healing rates and patient satisfaction after arthroscopic repair of medium to large rotator cuff tears with a single-row technique augmented with bone marrow vents.
      ,
      • Fermont A.J.
      • Wolterbeek N.
      • Wessel R.N.
      • Baeyens J.P.
      • de Bie R.A.
      Prognostic factors for recovery after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair: a prognostic study.
      ,
      • Haviv B.
      • Rutenberg T.F.
      • Yaari L.
      • Khatib M.
      • Rath E.
      • Yassin M.
      Which patients are less likely to improve after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair?.
      ,
      • Kim C.W.
      • Kim J.H.
      • Kim D.G.
      The factors affecting pain pattern after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair.
      ,
      • Kim D.M.
      • Kim T.H.
      • Kholinne E.
      • Park J.H.
      • Shin M.J.
      • Kim H.
      • et al.
      Minimal Clinically Important Difference, Substantial Clinical Benefit, and Patient Acceptable Symptomatic State After Arthroscopic Rotator Cuff Repair.
      ,
      • Malavolta E.A.
      • Yamamoto G.J.
      • Bussius D.T.
      • Assuncao J.H.
      • Andrade-Silva F.B.
      • Gracitelli M.E.C.
      • et al.
      Establishing minimal clinically important difference for the UCLA and ASES scores after rotator cuff repair.
      ,
      • Nakamura Y.
      • Gotoh M.
      • Mitsui Y.
      • Nakamura H.
      • Ohzono H.
      • Okawa T.
      • et al.
      Prognostic factors affecting clinical outcomes after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair: importance of functional recovery by 3 months after surgery.
      ,
      • Ohzono H.
      • Gotoh M.
      • Nakamura H.
      • Honda H.
      • Mitsui Y.
      • Kakuma T.
      • et al.
      Effect of Preoperative Fatty Degeneration of the Rotator Cuff Muscles on the Clinical Outcome of Patients With Intact Tendons After Arthroscopic Rotator Cuff Repair of Large/Massive Cuff Tears.
      ,
      • Pecora J.O.
      • Malavolta E.A.
      • Assuncao J.H.
      • Gracitelli M.E.
      • Martins J.P.
      • Ferreira Jr., A.A.
      Prognostic factors for clinical outcomes after rotator cuff repair.
      ,
      • Robinson H.A.
      • Lam P.H.
      • Walton J.R.
      • Murrell G.A.C.
      The effect of rotator cuff repair on early overhead shoulder function: a study in 1600 consecutive rotator cuff repairs.
      ,
      • Sun Y.
      • Lin J.
      • Luo Z.
      • Chen J.
      Preoperative Lymphocyte to Monocyte Ratio Can Be a Prognostic Factor in Arthroscopic Repair of Small to Large Rotator Cuff Tears.
      ,
      • Tan M.
      • Lam P.H.
      • Le B.T.
      • Murrell G.A.
      Trauma versus no trauma: an analysis of the effect of tear mechanism on tendon healing in 1300 consecutive patients after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair.
      ,
      • Watson S.
      • Allen B.
      • Robbins C.
      • Bedi A.
      • Gagnier J.J.
      • Miller B.
      Does the Rotator Cuff Tear Pattern Influence Clinical Outcomes After Surgical Repair?.
      Full-thickness only8 (34)
      • Basat H.C.
      • Armangil M.
      • Yogun Y.
      Effect of affective temperament on outcome of rotator cuff surgery.
      ,
      • Beck E.C.
      • Gowd A.K.
      • Liu J.N.
      • Waterman B.R.
      • Nicholson K.F.
      • Forsythe B.
      • et al.
      How Is Maximum Outcome Improvement Defined in Patients Undergoing Shoulder Arthroscopy for Rotator Cuff Repair? A 1-Year Follow-Up Study.
      ,
      • Dwyer T.
      • Razmjou H.
      • Holtby R.
      Full-thickness rotator cuff tears in patients younger than 55 years: clinical outcome of arthroscopic repair in comparison with older patients.
      ,
      • Gutman M.J.
      • Joyce C.D.
      • Patel M.S.
      • Kirsch J.M.
      • Gutman B.S.
      • Abboud J.A.
      • et al.
      Early repair of traumatic rotator cuff tears improves functional outcomes.
      ,
      • Naimark M.
      • Trinh T.
      • Robbins C.
      • Rodoni B.
      • Carpenter J.
      • Bedi A.
      • et al.
      Effect of Muscle Quality on Operative and Nonoperative Treatment of Rotator Cuff Tears.
      ,
      • Potter M.Q.
      • Wylie J.D.
      • Granger E.K.
      • Greis P.E.
      • Burks R.T.
      • Tashjian R.Z.
      One-year Patient-reported Outcomes After Arthroscopic Rotator Cuff Repair Do Not Correlate With Mild to Moderate Psychological Distress.
      ,
      • Tashjian R.Z.
      • Shin J.
      • Broschinsky K.
      • Yeh C.C.
      • Martin B.
      • Chalmers P.N.
      • et al.
      Minimal clinically important differences in the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons, Simple Shoulder Test, and visual analog scale pain scores after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair.
      ,
      • Watson S.
      • Allen B.
      • Robbins C.
      • Bedi A.
      • Gagnier J.J.
      • Miller B.
      Does the Rotator Cuff Tear Pattern Influence Clinical Outcomes After Surgical Repair?.
      Partial-thickness only2 (8)
      • Donohue N.K.
      • Nickel B.T.
      • Grindel S.I.
      High-Grade Articular, Bursal, and Intratendinous Partial-Thickness Rotator Cuff Tears: A Retrospective Study Comparing Functional Outcomes After Completion and Repair.
      ,
      • Donohue N.K.
      • Prisco A.R.
      • Grindel S.I.
      Pre-operative corticosteroid injections improve functional outcomes in patients undergoing arthroscopic repair of high-grade partial-thickness rotator cuff tears.
      Number of surgeons involved
      One surgeon9 (37.5)
      • Basat H.C.
      • Armangil M.
      • Yogun Y.
      Effect of affective temperament on outcome of rotator cuff surgery.
      ,
      • Chalmers P.N.
      • Granger E.
      • Nelson R.
      • Yoo M.
      • Tashjian R.Z.
      Factors Affecting Cost, Outcomes, and Tendon Healing After Arthroscopic Rotator Cuff Repair.
      ,
      • Donohue N.K.
      • Prisco A.R.
      • Grindel S.I.
      Pre-operative corticosteroid injections improve functional outcomes in patients undergoing arthroscopic repair of high-grade partial-thickness rotator cuff tears.
      ,
      • Dwyer T.
      • Razmjou H.
      • Holtby R.
      Full-thickness rotator cuff tears in patients younger than 55 years: clinical outcome of arthroscopic repair in comparison with older patients.
      ,
      • Fermont A.J.
      • Wolterbeek N.
      • Wessel R.N.
      • Baeyens J.P.
      • de Bie R.A.
      Prognostic factors for recovery after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair: a prognostic study.
      ,
      • Kim D.M.
      • Kim T.H.
      • Kholinne E.
      • Park J.H.
      • Shin M.J.
      • Kim H.
      • et al.
      Minimal Clinically Important Difference, Substantial Clinical Benefit, and Patient Acceptable Symptomatic State After Arthroscopic Rotator Cuff Repair.
      ,
      • Robinson H.A.
      • Lam P.H.
      • Walton J.R.
      • Murrell G.A.C.
      The effect of rotator cuff repair on early overhead shoulder function: a study in 1600 consecutive rotator cuff repairs.
      ,
      • Sun Y.
      • Lin J.
      • Luo Z.
      • Chen J.
      Preoperative Lymphocyte to Monocyte Ratio Can Be a Prognostic Factor in Arthroscopic Repair of Small to Large Rotator Cuff Tears.
      ,
      • Tan M.
      • Lam P.H.
      • Le B.T.
      • Murrell G.A.
      Trauma versus no trauma: an analysis of the effect of tear mechanism on tendon healing in 1300 consecutive patients after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair.
      Two surgeons3 (12.5)
      • Dierckman B.D.
      • Ni J.J.
      • Karzel R.P.
      • Getelman M.H.
      Excellent healing rates and patient satisfaction after arthroscopic repair of medium to large rotator cuff tears with a single-row technique augmented with bone marrow vents.
      ,
      • Ohzono H.
      • Gotoh M.
      • Nakamura H.
      • Honda H.
      • Mitsui Y.
      • Kakuma T.
      • et al.
      Effect of Preoperative Fatty Degeneration of the Rotator Cuff Muscles on the Clinical Outcome of Patients With Intact Tendons After Arthroscopic Rotator Cuff Repair of Large/Massive Cuff Tears.
      Three surgeons or more8 (33)
      • Cvetanovich G.L.
      • Gowd A.K.
      • Liu J.N.
      • Nwachukwu B.U.
      • Cabarcas B.C.
      • Cole B.J.
      • et al.
      Establishing clinically significant outcome after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair.
      ,
      • Gutman M.J.
      • Joyce C.D.
      • Patel M.S.
      • Kirsch J.M.
      • Gutman B.S.
      • Abboud J.A.
      • et al.
      Early repair of traumatic rotator cuff tears improves functional outcomes.
      ,
      • Malavolta E.A.
      • Yamamoto G.J.
      • Bussius D.T.
      • Assuncao J.H.
      • Andrade-Silva F.B.
      • Gracitelli M.E.C.
      • et al.
      Establishing minimal clinically important difference for the UCLA and ASES scores after rotator cuff repair.
      ,
      • Naimark M.
      • Trinh T.
      • Robbins C.
      • Rodoni B.
      • Carpenter J.
      • Bedi A.
      • et al.
      Effect of Muscle Quality on Operative and Nonoperative Treatment of Rotator Cuff Tears.
      ,
      • Pecora J.O.
      • Malavolta E.A.
      • Assuncao J.H.
      • Gracitelli M.E.
      • Martins J.P.
      • Ferreira Jr., A.A.
      Prognostic factors for clinical outcomes after rotator cuff repair.
      ,
      • Potter M.Q.
      • Wylie J.D.
      • Granger E.K.
      • Greis P.E.
      • Burks R.T.
      • Tashjian R.Z.
      One-year Patient-reported Outcomes After Arthroscopic Rotator Cuff Repair Do Not Correlate With Mild to Moderate Psychological Distress.
      ,
      • Tashjian R.Z.
      • Shin J.
      • Broschinsky K.
      • Yeh C.C.
      • Martin B.
      • Chalmers P.N.
      • et al.
      Minimal clinically important differences in the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons, Simple Shoulder Test, and visual analog scale pain scores after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair.
      ,
      • Watson S.
      • Allen B.
      • Robbins C.
      • Bedi A.
      • Gagnier J.J.
      • Miller B.
      Does the Rotator Cuff Tear Pattern Influence Clinical Outcomes After Surgical Repair?.
      Missing information4 (17)
      • Beck E.C.
      • Gowd A.K.
      • Liu J.N.
      • Waterman B.R.
      • Nicholson K.F.
      • Forsythe B.
      • et al.
      How Is Maximum Outcome Improvement Defined in Patients Undergoing Shoulder Arthroscopy for Rotator Cuff Repair? A 1-Year Follow-Up Study.
      ,
      • Donohue N.K.
      • Nickel B.T.
      • Grindel S.I.
      High-Grade Articular, Bursal, and Intratendinous Partial-Thickness Rotator Cuff Tears: A Retrospective Study Comparing Functional Outcomes After Completion and Repair.
      ,
      • Kim C.W.
      • Kim J.H.
      • Kim D.G.
      The factors affecting pain pattern after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair.
      ,
      • Nakamura Y.
      • Gotoh M.
      • Mitsui Y.
      • Nakamura H.
      • Ohzono H.
      • Okawa T.
      • et al.
      Prognostic factors affecting clinical outcomes after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair: importance of functional recovery by 3 months after surgery.
      Outcome type
      Continuous16 (67)
      • Chalmers P.N.
      • Granger E.
      • Nelson R.
      • Yoo M.
      • Tashjian R.Z.
      Factors Affecting Cost, Outcomes, and Tendon Healing After Arthroscopic Rotator Cuff Repair.
      ,
      • Donohue N.K.
      • Nickel B.T.
      • Grindel S.I.
      High-Grade Articular, Bursal, and Intratendinous Partial-Thickness Rotator Cuff Tears: A Retrospective Study Comparing Functional Outcomes After Completion and Repair.
      • Donohue N.K.
      • Prisco A.R.
      • Grindel S.I.
      Pre-operative corticosteroid injections improve functional outcomes in patients undergoing arthroscopic repair of high-grade partial-thickness rotator cuff tears.
      • Dwyer T.
      • Razmjou H.
      • Holtby R.
      Full-thickness rotator cuff tears in patients younger than 55 years: clinical outcome of arthroscopic repair in comparison with older patients.
      ,
      • Fermont A.J.
      • Wolterbeek N.
      • Wessel R.N.
      • Baeyens J.P.
      • de Bie R.A.
      Prognostic factors for recovery after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair: a prognostic study.
      ,
      • Gutman M.J.
      • Joyce C.D.
      • Patel M.S.
      • Kirsch J.M.
      • Gutman B.S.
      • Abboud J.A.
      • et al.
      Early repair of traumatic rotator cuff tears improves functional outcomes.
      ,
      • Haviv B.
      • Rutenberg T.F.
      • Yaari L.
      • Khatib M.
      • Rath E.
      • Yassin M.
      Which patients are less likely to improve after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair?.
      ,
      • Malavolta E.A.
      • Yamamoto G.J.
      • Bussius D.T.
      • Assuncao J.H.
      • Andrade-Silva F.B.
      • Gracitelli M.E.C.
      • et al.
      Establishing minimal clinically important difference for the UCLA and ASES scores after rotator cuff repair.
      ,
      • Naimark M.
      • Trinh T.
      • Robbins C.
      • Rodoni B.
      • Carpenter J.
      • Bedi A.
      • et al.
      Effect of Muscle Quality on Operative and Nonoperative Treatment of Rotator Cuff Tears.
      ,
      • Pecora J.O.
      • Malavolta E.A.
      • Assuncao J.H.
      • Gracitelli M.E.
      • Martins J.P.
      • Ferreira Jr., A.A.
      Prognostic factors for clinical outcomes after rotator cuff repair.
      ,
      • Potter M.Q.
      • Wylie J.D.
      • Granger E.K.
      • Greis P.E.
      • Burks R.T.
      • Tashjian R.Z.
      One-year Patient-reported Outcomes After Arthroscopic Rotator Cuff Repair Do Not Correlate With Mild to Moderate Psychological Distress.
      ,
      • Robinson H.A.
      • Lam P.H.
      • Walton J.R.
      • Murrell G.A.C.
      The effect of rotator cuff repair on early overhead shoulder function: a study in 1600 consecutive rotator cuff repairs.
      ,
      • Sun Y.
      • Lin J.
      • Luo Z.
      • Chen J.
      Preoperative Lymphocyte to Monocyte Ratio Can Be a Prognostic Factor in Arthroscopic Repair of Small to Large Rotator Cuff Tears.
      ,
      • Tan M.
      • Lam P.H.
      • Le B.T.
      • Murrell G.A.
      Trauma versus no trauma: an analysis of the effect of tear mechanism on tendon healing in 1300 consecutive patients after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair.
      ,
      • Watson S.
      • Allen B.
      • Robbins C.
      • Bedi A.
      • Gagnier J.J.
      • Miller B.
      Does the Rotator Cuff Tear Pattern Influence Clinical Outcomes After Surgical Repair?.
      Dichotomousa7 (29)
      • Cvetanovich G.L.
      • Gowd A.K.
      • Liu J.N.
      • Nwachukwu B.U.
      • Cabarcas B.C.
      • Cole B.J.
      • et al.
      Establishing clinically significant outcome after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair.
      ,
      • Dierckman B.D.
      • Ni J.J.
      • Karzel R.P.
      • Getelman M.H.
      Excellent healing rates and patient satisfaction after arthroscopic repair of medium to large rotator cuff tears with a single-row technique augmented with bone marrow vents.
      ,
      • Kim C.W.
      • Kim J.H.
      • Kim D.G.
      The factors affecting pain pattern after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair.
      ,
      • Kim D.M.
      • Kim T.H.
      • Kholinne E.
      • Park J.H.
      • Shin M.J.
      • Kim H.
      • et al.
      Minimal Clinically Important Difference, Substantial Clinical Benefit, and Patient Acceptable Symptomatic State After Arthroscopic Rotator Cuff Repair.
      ,
      • Nakamura Y.
      • Gotoh M.
      • Mitsui Y.
      • Nakamura H.
      • Ohzono H.
      • Okawa T.
      • et al.
      Prognostic factors affecting clinical outcomes after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair: importance of functional recovery by 3 months after surgery.
      ,
      • Ohzono H.
      • Gotoh M.
      • Nakamura H.
      • Honda H.
      • Mitsui Y.
      • Kakuma T.
      • et al.
      Effect of Preoperative Fatty Degeneration of the Rotator Cuff Muscles on the Clinical Outcome of Patients With Intact Tendons After Arthroscopic Rotator Cuff Repair of Large/Massive Cuff Tears.
      ,
      • Tashjian R.Z.
      • Shin J.
      • Broschinsky K.
      • Yeh C.C.
      • Martin B.
      • Chalmers P.N.
      • et al.
      Minimal clinically important differences in the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons, Simple Shoulder Test, and visual analog scale pain scores after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair.
      Categorized1 (4)
      • Tan M.
      • Lam P.H.
      • Le B.T.
      • Murrell G.A.
      Trauma versus no trauma: an analysis of the effect of tear mechanism on tendon healing in 1300 consecutive patients after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair.
      End point
      6 months2 (8)
      • Robinson H.A.
      • Lam P.H.
      • Walton J.R.
      • Murrell G.A.C.
      The effect of rotator cuff repair on early overhead shoulder function: a study in 1600 consecutive rotator cuff repairs.
      ,
      • Tan M.
      • Lam P.H.
      • Le B.T.
      • Murrell G.A.
      Trauma versus no trauma: an analysis of the effect of tear mechanism on tendon healing in 1300 consecutive patients after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair.
      12 months13 (54)
      • Beck E.C.
      • Gowd A.K.
      • Liu J.N.
      • Waterman B.R.
      • Nicholson K.F.
      • Forsythe B.
      • et al.
      How Is Maximum Outcome Improvement Defined in Patients Undergoing Shoulder Arthroscopy for Rotator Cuff Repair? A 1-Year Follow-Up Study.
      ,
      • Chalmers P.N.
      • Granger E.
      • Nelson R.
      • Yoo M.
      • Tashjian R.Z.
      Factors Affecting Cost, Outcomes, and Tendon Healing After Arthroscopic Rotator Cuff Repair.
      ,
      • Cvetanovich G.L.
      • Gowd A.K.
      • Liu J.N.
      • Nwachukwu B.U.
      • Cabarcas B.C.
      • Cole B.J.
      • et al.
      Establishing clinically significant outcome after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair.
      ,
      • Donohue N.K.
      • Nickel B.T.
      • Grindel S.I.
      High-Grade Articular, Bursal, and Intratendinous Partial-Thickness Rotator Cuff Tears: A Retrospective Study Comparing Functional Outcomes After Completion and Repair.
      ,
      • Donohue N.K.
      • Prisco A.R.
      • Grindel S.I.
      Pre-operative corticosteroid injections improve functional outcomes in patients undergoing arthroscopic repair of high-grade partial-thickness rotator cuff tears.
      ,
      • Fermont A.J.
      • Wolterbeek N.
      • Wessel R.N.
      • Baeyens J.P.
      • de Bie R.A.
      Prognostic factors for recovery after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair: a prognostic study.
      ,
      • Kim C.W.
      • Kim J.H.
      • Kim D.G.
      The factors affecting pain pattern after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair.
      ,
      • Kim D.M.
      • Kim T.H.
      • Kholinne E.
      • Park J.H.
      • Shin M.J.
      • Kim H.
      • et al.
      Minimal Clinically Important Difference, Substantial Clinical Benefit, and Patient Acceptable Symptomatic State After Arthroscopic Rotator Cuff Repair.
      ,
      • Malavolta E.A.
      • Yamamoto G.J.
      • Bussius D.T.
      • Assuncao J.H.
      • Andrade-Silva F.B.
      • Gracitelli M.E.C.
      • et al.
      Establishing minimal clinically important difference for the UCLA and ASES scores after rotator cuff repair.
      ,
      • Pecora J.O.
      • Malavolta E.A.
      • Assuncao J.H.
      • Gracitelli M.E.
      • Martins J.P.
      • Ferreira Jr., A.A.
      Prognostic factors for clinical outcomes after rotator cuff repair.
      ,
      • Potter M.Q.
      • Wylie J.D.
      • Granger E.K.
      • Greis P.E.
      • Burks R.T.
      • Tashjian R.Z.
      One-year Patient-reported Outcomes After Arthroscopic Rotator Cuff Repair Do Not Correlate With Mild to Moderate Psychological Distress.
      ,
      • Tashjian R.Z.
      • Shin J.
      • Broschinsky K.
      • Yeh C.C.
      • Martin B.
      • Chalmers P.N.
      • et al.
      Minimal clinically important differences in the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons, Simple Shoulder Test, and visual analog scale pain scores after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair.
      ,
      • Watson S.
      • Allen B.
      • Robbins C.
      • Bedi A.
      • Gagnier J.J.
      • Miller B.
      Does the Rotator Cuff Tear Pattern Influence Clinical Outcomes After Surgical Repair?.
      24 months9 (37)
      • Basat H.C.
      • Armangil M.
      • Yogun Y.
      Effect of affective temperament on outcome of rotator cuff surgery.
      ,
      • Dierckman B.D.
      • Ni J.J.
      • Karzel R.P.
      • Getelman M.H.
      Excellent healing rates and patient satisfaction after arthroscopic repair of medium to large rotator cuff tears with a single-row technique augmented with bone marrow vents.
      ,
      • Dwyer T.
      • Razmjou H.
      • Holtby R.
      Full-thickness rotator cuff tears in patients younger than 55 years: clinical outcome of arthroscopic repair in comparison with older patients.
      ,
      • Gutman M.J.
      • Joyce C.D.
      • Patel M.S.
      • Kirsch J.M.
      • Gutman B.S.
      • Abboud J.A.
      • et al.
      Early repair of traumatic rotator cuff tears improves functional outcomes.
      ,
      • Haviv B.
      • Rutenberg T.F.
      • Yaari L.
      • Khatib M.
      • Rath E.
      • Yassin M.
      Which patients are less likely to improve after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair?.
      ,
      • Naimark M.
      • Trinh T.
      • Robbins C.
      • Rodoni B.
      • Carpenter J.
      • Bedi A.
      • et al.
      Effect of Muscle Quality on Operative and Nonoperative Treatment of Rotator Cuff Tears.
      ,
      • Nakamura Y.
      • Gotoh M.
      • Mitsui Y.
      • Nakamura H.
      • Ohzono H.
      • Okawa T.
      • et al.
      Prognostic factors affecting clinical outcomes after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair: importance of functional recovery by 3 months after surgery.
      ,
      • Ohzono H.
      • Gotoh M.
      • Nakamura H.
      • Honda H.
      • Mitsui Y.
      • Kakuma T.
      • et al.
      Effect of Preoperative Fatty Degeneration of the Rotator Cuff Muscles on the Clinical Outcome of Patients With Intact Tendons After Arthroscopic Rotator Cuff Repair of Large/Massive Cuff Tears.
      ,
      • Sun Y.
      • Lin J.
      • Luo Z.
      • Chen J.
      Preoperative Lymphocyte to Monocyte Ratio Can Be a Prognostic Factor in Arthroscopic Repair of Small to Large Rotator Cuff Tears.
      a: authors used thresholds to dichotomize their outcomes with the achievement of minimal clinical important differences (MCID), patient acceptable symptom state (PASS), substantial clinical benefit (SCB) or maximal outcome improvement (MOI).
      Of the 24 included studies, 17 (71%) included all types of rotator cuff tears (supraspinatus, infraspinatus, and/or subscapularis tears)
      • Basat H.C.
      • Armangil M.
      • Yogun Y.
      Effect of affective temperament on outcome of rotator cuff surgery.
      ,
      • Beck E.C.
      • Gowd A.K.
      • Liu J.N.
      • Waterman B.R.
      • Nicholson K.F.
      • Forsythe B.
      • et al.
      How Is Maximum Outcome Improvement Defined in Patients Undergoing Shoulder Arthroscopy for Rotator Cuff Repair? A 1-Year Follow-Up Study.
      ,
      • Chalmers P.N.
      • Granger E.
      • Nelson R.
      • Yoo M.
      • Tashjian R.Z.
      Factors Affecting Cost, Outcomes, and Tendon Healing After Arthroscopic Rotator Cuff Repair.
      ,
      • Cvetanovich G.L.
      • Gowd A.K.
      • Liu J.N.
      • Nwachukwu B.U.
      • Cabarcas B.C.
      • Cole B.J.
      • et al.
      Establishing clinically significant outcome after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair.
      ,
      • Fermont A.J.
      • Wolterbeek N.
      • Wessel R.N.
      • Baeyens J.P.
      • de Bie R.A.
      Prognostic factors for recovery after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair: a prognostic study.
      ,
      • Gutman M.J.
      • Joyce C.D.
      • Patel M.S.
      • Kirsch J.M.
      • Gutman B.S.
      • Abboud J.A.
      • et al.
      Early repair of traumatic rotator cuff tears improves functional outcomes.
      ,
      • Haviv B.
      • Rutenberg T.F.
      • Yaari L.
      • Khatib M.
      • Rath E.
      • Yassin M.
      Which patients are less likely to improve after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair?.
      ,
      • Kim D.M.
      • Kim T.H.
      • Kholinne E.
      • Park J.H.
      • Shin M.J.
      • Kim H.
      • et al.
      Minimal Clinically Important Difference, Substantial Clinical Benefit, and Patient Acceptable Symptomatic State After Arthroscopic Rotator Cuff Repair.
      ,
      • Malavolta E.A.
      • Yamamoto G.J.
      • Bussius D.T.
      • Assuncao J.H.
      • Andrade-Silva F.B.
      • Gracitelli M.E.C.
      • et al.
      Establishing minimal clinically important difference for the UCLA and ASES scores after rotator cuff repair.
      ,
      • Naimark M.
      • Trinh T.
      • Robbins C.
      • Rodoni B.
      • Carpenter J.
      • Bedi A.
      • et al.
      Effect of Muscle Quality on Operative and Nonoperative Treatment of Rotator Cuff Tears.
      ,
      • Nakamura Y.
      • Gotoh M.
      • Mitsui Y.
      • Nakamura H.
      • Ohzono H.
      • Okawa T.
      • et al.
      Prognostic factors affecting clinical outcomes after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair: importance of functional recovery by 3 months after surgery.
      ,
      • Ohzono H.
      • Gotoh M.
      • Nakamura H.
      • Honda H.
      • Mitsui Y.
      • Kakuma T.
      • et al.
      Effect of Preoperative Fatty Degeneration of the Rotator Cuff Muscles on the Clinical Outcome of Patients With Intact Tendons After Arthroscopic Rotator Cuff Repair of Large/Massive Cuff Tears.
      ,
      • Pecora J.O.
      • Malavolta E.A.
      • Assuncao J.H.
      • Gracitelli M.E.
      • Martins J.P.
      • Ferreira Jr., A.A.
      Prognostic factors for clinical outcomes after rotator cuff repair.
      ,
      • Potter M.Q.
      • Wylie J.D.
      • Granger E.K.
      • Greis P.E.
      • Burks R.T.
      • Tashjian R.Z.
      One-year Patient-reported Outcomes After Arthroscopic Rotator Cuff Repair Do Not Correlate With Mild to Moderate Psychological Distress.
      ,
      • Robinson H.A.
      • Lam P.H.
      • Walton J.R.
      • Murrell G.A.C.
      The effect of rotator cuff repair on early overhead shoulder function: a study in 1600 consecutive rotator cuff repairs.
      ,
      • Sun Y.
      • Lin J.
      • Luo Z.
      • Chen J.
      Preoperative Lymphocyte to Monocyte Ratio Can Be a Prognostic Factor in Arthroscopic Repair of Small to Large Rotator Cuff Tears.
      ,
      • Tashjian R.Z.
      • Shin J.
      • Broschinsky K.
      • Yeh C.C.
      • Martin B.
      • Chalmers P.N.
      • et al.
      Minimal clinically important differences in the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons, Simple Shoulder Test, and visual analog scale pain scores after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair.
      , and 22 (92%) reported outcomes for both degenerative and traumatic tears
      • Basat H.C.
      • Armangil M.
      • Yogun Y.
      Effect of affective temperament on outcome of rotator cuff surgery.
      ,
      • Beck E.C.
      • Gowd A.K.
      • Liu J.N.
      • Waterman B.R.
      • Nicholson K.F.
      • Forsythe B.
      • et al.
      How Is Maximum Outcome Improvement Defined in Patients Undergoing Shoulder Arthroscopy for Rotator Cuff Repair? A 1-Year Follow-Up Study.
      ,
      • Chalmers P.N.
      • Granger E.
      • Nelson R.
      • Yoo M.
      • Tashjian R.Z.
      Factors Affecting Cost, Outcomes, and Tendon Healing After Arthroscopic Rotator Cuff Repair.
      ,
      • Cvetanovich G.L.
      • Gowd A.K.
      • Liu J.N.
      • Nwachukwu B.U.
      • Cabarcas B.C.
      • Cole B.J.
      • et al.
      Establishing clinically significant outcome after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair.
      ,
      • Dierckman B.D.
      • Ni J.J.
      • Karzel R.P.
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      Pre-operative corticosteroid injections improve functional outcomes in patients undergoing arthroscopic repair of high-grade partial-thickness rotator cuff tears.
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      Which patients are less likely to improve after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair?.
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      . Fourteen studies (58%) reported outcomes for all types of tears (including full or partial-thickness tears)
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      Establishing clinically significant outcome after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair.
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      Excellent healing rates and patient satisfaction after arthroscopic repair of medium to large rotator cuff tears with a single-row technique augmented with bone marrow vents.
      ,
      • Fermont A.J.
      • Wolterbeek N.
      • Wessel R.N.
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      Prognostic factors for recovery after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair: a prognostic study.
      ,
      • Haviv B.
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      • Rath E.
      • Yassin M.
      Which patients are less likely to improve after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair?.
      ,
      • Kim C.W.
      • Kim J.H.
      • Kim D.G.
      The factors affecting pain pattern after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair.
      ,
      • Kim D.M.
      • Kim T.H.
      • Kholinne E.
      • Park J.H.
      • Shin M.J.
      • Kim H.
      • et al.
      Minimal Clinically Important Difference, Substantial Clinical Benefit, and Patient Acceptable Symptomatic State After Arthroscopic Rotator Cuff Repair.
      ,
      • Malavolta E.A.
      • Yamamoto G.J.
      • Bussius D.T.
      • Assuncao J.H.
      • Andrade-Silva F.B.
      • Gracitelli M.E.C.
      • et al.
      Establishing minimal clinically important difference for the UCLA and ASES scores after rotator cuff repair.
      ,
      • Nakamura Y.
      • Gotoh M.
      • Mitsui Y.
      • Nakamura H.
      • Ohzono H.
      • Okawa T.
      • et al.
      Prognostic factors affecting clinical outcomes after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair: importance of functional recovery by 3 months after surgery.
      ,
      • Ohzono H.
      • Gotoh M.
      • Nakamura H.
      • Honda H.
      • Mitsui Y.
      • Kakuma T.
      • et al.
      Effect of Preoperative Fatty Degeneration of the Rotator Cuff Muscles on the Clinical Outcome of Patients With Intact Tendons After Arthroscopic Rotator Cuff Repair of Large/Massive Cuff Tears.
      ,
      • Pecora J.O.
      • Malavolta E.A.
      • Assuncao J.H.
      • Gracitelli M.E.
      • Martins J.P.
      • Ferreira Jr., A.A.
      Prognostic factors for clinical outcomes after rotator cuff repair.
      ,
      • Robinson H.A.
      • Lam P.H.
      • Walton J.R.
      • Murrell G.A.C.
      The effect of rotator cuff repair on early overhead shoulder function: a study in 1600 consecutive rotator cuff repairs.
      ,
      • Sun Y.
      • Lin J.
      • Luo Z.
      • Chen J.
      Preoperative Lymphocyte to Monocyte Ratio Can Be a Prognostic Factor in Arthroscopic Repair of Small to Large Rotator Cuff Tears.
      ,
      • Tan M.
      • Lam P.H.
      • Le B.T.
      • Murrell G.A.
      Trauma versus no trauma: an analysis of the effect of tear mechanism on tendon healing in 1300 consecutive patients after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair.
      ,
      • Watson S.
      • Allen B.
      • Robbins C.
      • Bedi A.
      • Gagnier J.J.
      • Miller B.
      Does the Rotator Cuff Tear Pattern Influence Clinical Outcomes After Surgical Repair?.
      . The number of surgeons involved in individual studies ranged from one
      • Basat H.C.
      • Armangil M.
      • Yogun Y.
      Effect of affective temperament on outcome of rotator cuff surgery.
      ,
      • Chalmers P.N.
      • Granger E.
      • Nelson R.
      • Yoo M.
      • Tashjian R.Z.
      Factors Affecting Cost, Outcomes, and Tendon Healing After Arthroscopic Rotator Cuff Repair.
      ,
      • Donohue N.K.
      • Prisco A.R.
      • Grindel S.I.
      Pre-operative corticosteroid injections improve functional outcomes in patients undergoing arthroscopic repair of high-grade partial-thickness rotator cuff tears.
      ,
      • Dwyer T.
      • Razmjou H.
      • Holtby R.
      Full-thickness rotator cuff tears in patients younger than 55 years: clinical outcome of arthroscopic repair in comparison with older patients.
      ,
      • Fermont A.J.
      • Wolterbeek N.
      • Wessel R.N.
      • Baeyens J.P.
      • de Bie R.A.
      Prognostic factors for recovery after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair: a prognostic study.
      ,
      • Kim D.M.
      • Kim T.H.
      • Kholinne E.
      • Park J.H.
      • Shin M.J.
      • Kim H.
      • et al.
      Minimal Clinically Important Difference, Substantial Clinical Benefit, and Patient Acceptable Symptomatic State After Arthroscopic Rotator Cuff Repair.
      ,
      • Robinson H.A.
      • Lam P.H.
      • Walton J.R.
      • Murrell G.A.C.
      The effect of rotator cuff repair on early overhead shoulder function: a study in 1600 consecutive rotator cuff repairs.
      ,
      • Sun Y.
      • Lin J.
      • Luo Z.
      • Chen J.
      Preoperative Lymphocyte to Monocyte Ratio Can Be a Prognostic Factor in Arthroscopic Repair of Small to Large Rotator Cuff Tears.
      ,
      • Tan M.
      • Lam P.H.
      • Le B.T.
      • Murrell G.A.
      Trauma versus no trauma: an analysis of the effect of tear mechanism on tendon healing in 1300 consecutive patients after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair.
      to six
      • Cvetanovich G.L.
      • Gowd A.K.
      • Liu J.N.
      • Nwachukwu B.U.
      • Cabarcas B.C.
      • Cole B.J.
      • et al.
      Establishing clinically significant outcome after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair.
      .
      Continuous outcomes were reported in 16 studies (67%)
      • Chalmers P.N.
      • Granger E.
      • Nelson R.
      • Yoo M.
      • Tashjian R.Z.
      Factors Affecting Cost, Outcomes, and Tendon Healing After Arthroscopic Rotator Cuff Repair.
      ,
      • Donohue N.K.
      • Nickel B.T.
      • Grindel S.I.
      High-Grade Articular, Bursal, and Intratendinous Partial-Thickness Rotator Cuff Tears: A Retrospective Study Comparing Functional Outcomes After Completion and Repair.
      • Donohue N.K.
      • Prisco A.R.
      • Grindel S.I.
      Pre-operative corticosteroid injections improve functional outcomes in patients undergoing arthroscopic repair of high-grade partial-thickness rotator cuff tears.
      • Dwyer T.
      • Razmjou H.
      • Holtby R.
      Full-thickness rotator cuff tears in patients younger than 55 years: clinical outcome of arthroscopic repair in comparison with older patients.
      ,
      • Fermont A.J.
      • Wolterbeek N.
      • Wessel R.N.
      • Baeyens J.P.
      • de Bie R.A.
      Prognostic factors for recovery after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair: a prognostic study.
      ,
      • Gutman M.J.
      • Joyce C.D.
      • Patel M.S.
      • Kirsch J.M.
      • Gutman B.S.
      • Abboud J.A.
      • et al.
      Early repair of traumatic rotator cuff tears improves functional outcomes.
      ,
      • Haviv B.
      • Rutenberg T.F.
      • Yaari L.
      • Khatib M.
      • Rath E.
      • Yassin M.
      Which patients are less likely to improve after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair?.
      ,
      • Malavolta E.A.
      • Yamamoto G.J.
      • Bussius D.T.
      • Assuncao J.H.
      • Andrade-Silva F.B.
      • Gracitelli M.E.C.
      • et al.
      Establishing minimal clinically important difference for the UCLA and ASES scores after rotator cuff repair.
      ,
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      • Trinh T.
      • Robbins C.
      • Rodoni B.
      • Carpenter J.
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      Effect of Muscle Quality on Operative and Nonoperative Treatment of Rotator Cuff Tears.
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      • Gracitelli M.E.
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      Prognostic factors for clinical outcomes after rotator cuff repair.
      ,